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 Antigua and Barbuda(ANTİGUA VE BARBUDA)

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MesajKonu: Antigua and Barbuda(ANTİGUA VE BARBUDA)   Salı Şub. 03, 2009 8:12 pm

The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Antigua and Barbuda(ANTİGUA VE BARBUDA)   Salı Şub. 03, 2009 8:12 pm

Geography
Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor.
Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W
Area: total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
land: 442.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
Size comparison: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 153 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m
Natural resources: NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Land use: arable land: 18.18%
permanent crops: 4.55%
other: 77.27% (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
Current Environment Issues: water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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MesajKonu: Geri: Antigua and Barbuda(ANTİGUA VE BARBUDA)   Salı Şub. 03, 2009 8:13 pm

People
Population: 84,522 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.2% (male 11,670/female 11,318)
15-64 years: 66.3% (male 26,138/female 29,859)
65 years and over: 6.6% (male 2,408/female 3,129) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 29.5 years
male: 28 years
female: 30.8 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.305% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 16.78 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 6.14 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 17.49 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20.21 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.25 years
male: 72.33 years
female: 76.26 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.08 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
Ethnic groups: black 91%, mixed 4.4%, white 1.7%, other 2.9% (2001 census)
Religions: Anglican 25.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Roman Catholic 10.4%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%, none or unspecified 5.8% (2001 census)
Languages: English (official), local dialects
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
total population: 85.8%
male: NA%
female: NA% (2003 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Antigua and Barbuda(ANTİGUA VE BARBUDA)   Salı Şub. 03, 2009 8:13 pm

Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
Government type: constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government
Capital: name: Saint John's
geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
Constitution: 1 November 1981
Legal system: based on English common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 23 March 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ALP 4, UPP 13
Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction); member Caribbean Court of Justice
Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
Political pressure groups and leaders: Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007) head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March 2004) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
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MesajKonu: Geri: Antigua and Barbuda(ANTİGUA VE BARBUDA)   Salı Şub. 03, 2009 8:13 pm

Economy
Antigua has a relatively high GDP per capita in comparison to most other Caribbean nations. It has experienced solid growth since 2003, driven by a construction boom in hotels and housing that which should wind down in 2008. Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than half of GDP. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for slightly more than one-third of tourist arrivals. Since taking office in 2004, the SPENCER government has adopted an ambitious fiscal reform program, but will continue to be saddled by its debt burden with a debt-to-GDP ratio exceeding 100%.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.526 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.089 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.1% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $18,300 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.8%
industry: 22%
services: 74.3% (2002 est.)
Labor force: 30,000 (1991)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 7%
industry: 11%
services: 82% (1983)
Unemployment rate: 11% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2007 est.)
Budget: revenues: $123.7 million
expenditures: $145.9 million (2000 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 105 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 97.65 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 4,109 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 157.7 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 4,556 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: $-211 million (2007 est.)
Exports: $84.3 million (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals
Exports - partners: Spain 34%, Germany 20.7%, Italy 7.7%, Singapore 5.8%, UK 4.9% (2006)
Imports: $522.8 million (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
Imports - partners: US 21.1%, China 16.4%, Germany 13.3%, Singapore 12.7%, Spain 6.5% (2006)
Debt - external: $359.8 million (June 2006)
Currency (code): East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2007), 2.7 (2006), 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003) note: fixed rate since 1976
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
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MesajKonu: Geri: Antigua and Barbuda(ANTİGUA VE BARBUDA)   Salı Şub. 03, 2009 8:13 pm

Communications
Telephones in use: 37,500 (2006)
Cellular Phones in use: 110,200 (2006)
Telephone system: general assessment: NA
domestic: good automatic telephone system
international: country code - 1-268; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)
Internet country code: .ag
Internet hosts: 2,215 (2008)
Internet users: 60,000 (2007)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Antigua and Barbuda(ANTİGUA VE BARBUDA)   Salı Şub. 03, 2009 8:13 pm

Transportation
Airports: 3 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Roadways: total: 1,165 km
paved: 384 km
unpaved: 781 km (2002)
Merchant marine: total: 1,146
by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 50, cargo 651, carrier 4, chemical tanker 5, container 392, liquefied gas 12, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 20
foreign-owned: 1,113 (Australia 1, Colombia 2, Cyprus 18, Denmark 19, Estonia 23, France 1, Germany 941, Greece 3, Iceland 12, Italy 1, Latvia 13, Lithuania 5, Netherlands 20, NZ 2, Norway 8, Poland 2, Russia 4, Slovenia 6, Sweden 1, Switzerland 8, Turkey 6, UK 9, US Cool (2008)
Ports and terminals: Saint John's
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MesajKonu: Geri: Antigua and Barbuda(ANTİGUA VE BARBUDA)   Salı Şub. 03, 2009 8:14 pm

Military branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (2007)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 19,560
females age 16-49: 18,977 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 15,591
females age 16-49: 15,542 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Antigua and Barbuda(ANTİGUA VE BARBUDA)   Bugün 7:54 am

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