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 Barbados(BARBADOS)

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MesajKonu: Barbados(BARBADOS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 10:58 am

The island was uninhabited when first settled by the British in 1627. Slaves worked the sugar plantations established on the island until 1834 when slavery was abolished. The economy remained heavily dependent on sugar, rum, and molasses production through most of the 20th century. The gradual introduction of social and political reforms in the 1940s and 1950s led to complete independence from the UK in 1966. In the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the sugar industry in economic importance.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Barbados(BARBADOS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 10:59 am

Geography
Easternmost Caribbean island.
Location: Caribbean, island in the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Geographic coordinates: 13 10 N, 59 32 W
Area: total: 431 sq km
land: 431 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Size comparison: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 97 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to October)
Terrain: relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m
Natural resources: petroleum, fish, natural gas
Land use: arable land: 37.21%
permanent crops: 2.33%
other: 60.46% (2005)
Irrigated land: 50 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides
Current Environment Issues: pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of aquifers
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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MesajKonu: Geri: Barbados(BARBADOS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 10:59 am

People
Population: 281,968 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.3% (male 27,270/female 27,193)
15-64 years: 71.7% (male 99,357/female 102,683)
65 years and over: 9% (male 9,856/female 15,609) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 35.4 years
male: 34.2 years
female: 36.4 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.36% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 12.48 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 8.58 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 11.05 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.21 years
male: 71.2 years
female: 75.24 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.5% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,500 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial)
adjective: Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)
Ethnic groups: black 90%, white 4%, Asian and mixed 6%
Religions: Protestant 63.4% (Anglican 28.3%, Pentecostal 18.7%, Methodist 5.1%, other 11.3%), Roman Catholic 4.2%, other Christian 7%, other 4.8%, none or unspecified 20.6% (2008 est.)
Languages: English
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.7% (2002 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Barbados(BARBADOS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 10:59 am

Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Barbados
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Bridgetown
geographic coordinates: 13 06 N, 59 37 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 11 parishes and 1 city*; Bridgetown*, Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas
Independence: 30 November 1966 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 30 November (1966)
Constitution: 30 November 1966
Legal system: English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS (since 1 June 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister David THOMPSON (since 16 January 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (21 seats; members appointed by the governor general - 12 on the advice of the Prime Minister, 2 on the advice of the opposition leader, and 7 at his discretion) and the House of Assembly (30 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Assembly - last held 15 January 2008 (next to be called in 2013)
election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - DLP 52.5%, BLP 47.3%; seats by party - DLP 20, BLP 10
Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services); Caribbean Court of Justice is the highest court of appeal
Political parties and leaders: Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Mia MOTTLEY]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [David THOMPSON]; People's Empowerment Party or PEP [David COMISSIONG]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Barbados Secondary Teachers' Union or BSTU [Patrick FROST]; Barbados Union of Teachers or BUT [Herbert GITTENS]; Congress of Trade Unions and Staff Associations of Barbados or CTUSAB, (includes the BWU, NUPW, BUT, and BSTU) [Leroy TROTMAN]; Barbados Workers Union or BWU [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMISSIONG]; National Union of Public Workers [Joseph GODDARD]
International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael Ian KING
chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-9200
FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
consulate(s): Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mary M. OURISMAN
embassy: U.S. Embassy, Wildey Business Park, Wildey, St. Michael BB 14006
mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown BB 11000; CMR 1014, APO AA 34055
telephone: [1] (246) 227-4399
FAX: [1] (246) 431-0179
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS (since 1 June 1996) head of government: Prime Minister David THOMPSON (since 16 January 2008) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
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MesajKonu: Geri: Barbados(BARBADOS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 10:59 am

Economy
Historically, the Barbadian economy was dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities. However, production in recent years has diversified into light industry and tourism, with about three-quarters of GDP and 80% of exports being attributed to services. Growth has rebounded since 2003, bolstered by increases in construction projects and tourism revenues - reflecting its success in the higher-end segment. The country enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the region and an investment grade rating which benefits from its political stability and stable institutions. Offshore finance and information services are important foreign exchange earners and thrive from having the same time zone as eastern US financial centers and a relatively highly educated workforce. The government continues its efforts to reduce unemployment, to encourage direct foreign investment, and to privatize remaining state-owned enterprises.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $5.31 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $3.739 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $18,900 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 6%
industry: 16%
services: 78% (2000 est.)
Labor force: 128,500 (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 10%
industry: 15%
services: 75% (1996 est.)
Unemployment rate: 10.7% (2003 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.5% (2007 est.)
Budget: revenues: $847 million (including grants)
expenditures: $886 million (2000 est.)
Agriculture - products: sugarcane, vegetables, cotton
Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export
Industrial production growth rate: -3.2% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production: 1.003 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 939.9 million kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 1,111 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 8,674 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 1,750 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 10,710 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 2.2 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 29.17 million cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 29.17 million cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 141.6 million cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance: -$254 million (2007 est.)
Exports: $385 million (2006)
Exports - commodities: manufactures, sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals, electrical components
Exports - partners: Trinidad and Tobago 15.5%, Jamaica 13.5%, UK 9.4%, US 9.3%, Brazil 8.3%, Saint Lucia 7.2%, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4.5% (2007)
Imports: $1.586 billion (2006)
Imports - commodities: consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components
Imports - partners: US 30.5%, Trinidad and Tobago 27.6%, UK 6.5% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $620 million (2007)
Debt - external: $668 million (2003)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $5.513 billion (2005)
Currency (code): Barbadian dollar (BBD)
Exchange rates: Barbadian dollars (BBD) per US dollar - NA (2007), 2 (2006), 2 (2005), 2 (2004), 2 (2003)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
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MesajKonu: Geri: Barbados(BARBADOS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:00 am

Communications
Telephones in use: 134,900 (2005)
Cellular Phones in use: 237,100 (2006)
Telephone system: general assessment: fixed-line teledensity of roughly 50 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density of about 85 per 100 persons
domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system
international: country code - 1-246; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 1 (Intelsat -Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0 (2004)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 2 cable channels) (2004)
Internet country code: .bb
Internet hosts: 104 (2008)
Internet users: 160,000 (2005)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Barbados(BARBADOS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:00 am

Transportation
Airports: 1 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2007)
Roadways: total: 1,600 km
paved: 1,600 km (2004)
Merchant marine: total: 85
by type: bulk carrier 15, cargo 50, chemical tanker 7, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 80 (Canada 9, Greece 12, India 1, Iran 2, Lebanon 1, Norway 38, Sweden 7, Syria 1, UK 9)
registered in other countries: 1 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Bridgetown
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MesajKonu: Geri: Barbados(BARBADOS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:00 am

Military
The Royal Barbados Defense Force includes a land-based Troop Command and a small Coast Guard; the primary role of the land element is to defend the island against external aggression; the Command consists of a single, part-time battalion with a small regular cadre that is deployed throughout the island; it increasingly supports the police in patrolling the coastline to prevent smuggling and other illicit activities (2007)
Military branches: Royal Barbados Defense Force: Troops Command, Barbados Coast Guard (2007)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service (younger requires parental consent); no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 75,265
females age 16-49: 75,389 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 58,556
females age 16-49: 58,143 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Barbados(BARBADOS)   Bugün 4:19 pm

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