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 Bangladesh(BANGLADEŞ)

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MesajKonu: Bangladesh(BANGLADEŞ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:00 am

Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area of Bangladesh in the 16th century; eventually the British came to dominate the region and it became part of British India. In 1947, West Pakistan and East Bengal (both primarily Muslim) separated from India (largely Hindu) and jointly became the new country of Pakistan. East Bengal became East Pakistan in 1955, but the awkward arrangement of a two-part country with its territorial units separated by 1,600 km left the Bengalis marginalized and dissatisfied. East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan in 1971 and was renamed Bangladesh. A military-backed caretaker regime suspended planned parliamentary elections in January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption; the regime has pledged new democratic elections by the end of 2008. About a third of this extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Bangladesh(BANGLADEŞ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:01 am

Geography
Most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal.
Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 90 00 E
Area: total: 144,000 sq km
land: 133,910 sq km
water: 10,090 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than Iowa

Land Boundaries: total: 4,246 km
border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Coastline: 580 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
Climate: tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m
Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
Land use: arable land: 55.39%
permanent crops: 3.08%
other: 41.53% (2005)
Irrigated land: 47,250 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
Current Environment Issues: many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; waterborne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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MesajKonu: Geri: Bangladesh(BANGLADEŞ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:01 am

People
Population: 153,546,896 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.4% (male 26,364,370/female 24,859,792)
15-64 years: 63.1% (male 49,412,903/female 47,468,013)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 2,912,321/female 2,529,502) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 22.8 years
male: 22.8 years
female: 22.9 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.022% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 28.86 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 57.45 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 58.44 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 56.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.21 years
male: 63.14 years
female: 63.28 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.08 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 13,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 650 (2001 est.)
Nationality: noun: Bangladeshi(s)
adjective: Bangladeshi
Ethnic groups: Bengali 98%, other 2% (includes tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims) (1998)
Religions: Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)
Languages: Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 43.1%
male: 53.9%
female: 31.8% (2003 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Bangladesh(BANGLADEŞ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:01 am

Government
Country name: conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form: Bangladesh
local long form: Gana Prajatantri Banladesh
local short form: Banladesh
former: East Bengal, East Pakistan
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Dhaka
geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 6 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet
Independence: 16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972; suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986; amended many times
Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 September 2002)
note: the country has a caretaker government until a general election is held; Iajuddin AHMED remains as President and Minister of Defense, and all other Cabinet portfolios are held by Caretaker Advisers (CAs); the Chief CA, Fakhruddin AHMED, is roughly equivalent to a prime minister
elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election scheduled for 16 September 2002 was not held since Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn in on 6 September 2002 (next election NA); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared president-elect by the Election Commission; he ran unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote - NA
Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies; members serve five-year terms; note - parliament not in session during the extended caretaker regime
elections: last held 1 October 2001 (the scheduled January 2007 election has been postponed until 29 December 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - BNP and alliance partners 41%, AL 40%, other 19%; seats by party - BNP 193, AL 58, JI 17, JP (Ershad faction) 14, IOJ 2, JP (Manzur) 4, other 12; note - the election of October 2001 brought to power a majority BNP government aligned with three other smaller parties - JI, IOJ, and Jatiya Party (Manzur)
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders: Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP [Manjurul A. KHAN]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh or JIB [Matiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Badrudozza CHOWDHURY and Oli AHMED]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Advocacy to End Gender-based Violence through the MoWCA (Ministry of Women's and Children's Affairs)
other: environmentalists; Islamist groups; religious leaders; teachers; union leaders
International organization participation: ADB, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador M. Humayun KABIR
chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
FAX: [1] (202) 244-7830/2771
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James F. MORIARTY
embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
telephone: [880] (2) 885-5500
FAX: [880] (2) 882-3744
Executive branch: chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 September 2002) note: the country has a caretaker government until a general election is held; Iajuddin AHMED remains as President and Minister of Defense, and all other Cabinet portfolios are held by Caretaker Advisers (CAs); the Chief CA, Fakhruddin AHMED, is roughly equivalent to a prime minister elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election scheduled for 16 September 2002 was not held since Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn in on 6 September 2002 (next election NA); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared president-elect by the Election Commission; he ran unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote - NA
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MesajKonu: Geri: Bangladesh(BANGLADEŞ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:01 am

Economy
The economy has grown 5-6% over the past few years despite inefficient state-owned enterprises, delays in exploiting natural gas resources, insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated, and inefficiently-governed nation. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product. Garment exports and remittances from Bangladeshis working overseas, mainly in the Middle East and East Asia, fuel economic growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $208.3 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $72.42 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.3% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,400 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 19%
industry: 28.7%
services: 52.3% (2007 est.)
Labor force: 69.4 million note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $4.8 billion in 2005-06. (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 63%
industry: 11%
services: 26% (FY95/96)
Unemployment rate: 2.5% (includes underemployment) (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line: 45% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 27.9% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 33.4 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.1% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 24.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget: revenues: $7.01 billion
expenditures: $9.464 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt: 37.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
Industries: cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar
Industrial production growth rate: 8.4% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production: 22.78 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 21.37 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 6,746 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 89,940 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 1,351 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 83,220 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 28 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 15.7 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 15.7 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 141.6 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance: $804.7 million (2007 est.)
Exports: $12.45 billion (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities: garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood
Exports - partners: US 23%, Germany 13%, UK 9.1%, France 5.5%, Belgium 4% (2007)
Imports: $16.67 billion (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement
Imports - partners: China 15%, India 14.3%, Kuwait 8.3%, Singapore 6.2%, Hong Kong 4.2% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $5.278 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external: $21.23 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $4.971 billion (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $104 million (2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $3.61 billion (2006)
Currency (code): taka (BDT)
Exchange rates: taka (BDT) per US dollar - 69.893 (2007), 69.031 (2006), 64.328 (2005), 59.513 (2004), 58.15 (2003)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
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MesajKonu: Geri: Bangladesh(BANGLADEŞ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:01 am

Communications
Telephones in use: 1.187 million (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 34.37 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate for a modern country; fixed-line telephone density remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and is approaching 25 per 100 persons
domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities
international: country code - 880; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 15, FM 13, shortwave 2 (2006)
Television broadcast stations: 15 (1999)
Internet country code: .bd
Internet hosts: 1,440 (2008)
Internet users: 500,000 (2007)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Bangladesh(BANGLADEŞ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:01 am

Transportation
Airports: 16 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 15
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Pipelines: gas 2,644 km (2007)
Railways: total: 2,768 km
broad gauge: 946 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways: total: 239,226 km
paved: 22,726 km
unpaved: 216,500 km (2003)
Waterways: 8,370 km
note: includes up to 3,060 km main cargo routes; network reduced to 5,200 km in dry season (2006)
Merchant marine: total: 40
by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 27, container 5, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4
foreign-owned: 1 (China 1)
registered in other countries: 10 (Comoros 2, Honduras 1, Malta 2, Panama 2, Singapore 2, Togo 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Chittagong, Mongla Port
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MesajKonu: Geri: Bangladesh(BANGLADEŞ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:02 am

Military

Military branches: Bangladesh Defense Force: Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force (Bangladesh Biman Bahini, BAF) (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 16 years of age for voluntary military service; 17 years of age for officers (both with parental consent); conscription legally possible in emergency, but has never been implemented (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 41,199,340 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 31,968,168 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Bangladesh(BANGLADEŞ)   Bugün 7:51 pm

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