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     Benin(BENİN)

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    MesajKonu: Benin(BENİN)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:13 am

    Present day Benin was the site of Dahomey, a prominent West African kingdom that rose in the 15th century. The territory became a French Colony in 1872 and achieved independence on 1 August 1960, as the Republic of Benin. A succession of military governments ended in 1972 with the rise to power of Mathieu KEREKOU and the establishment of a government based on Marxist-Leninist principles. A move to representative government began in 1989. Two years later, free elections ushered in former Prime Minister Nicephore SOGLO as president, marking the first successful transfer of power in Africa from a dictatorship to a democracy. KEREKOU was returned to power by elections held in 1996 and 2001, though some irregularities were alleged. KEREKOU stepped down at the end of his second term in 2006 and was succeeded by Thomas YAYI Boni, a political outsider and independent. YAYI has begun a high profile fight against corruption and has strongly promoted accelerating Benin's economic growth.
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Benin(BENİN)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:13 am

    Geography
    Sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no natural harbors, river mouths, or islands.
    Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Nigeria and Togo
    Geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 2 15 E
    Area: total: 112,620 sq km
    land: 110,620 sq km
    water: 2,000 sq km
    Size comparison: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

    Land Boundaries: total: 1,989 km
    border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km
    Coastline: 121 km
    Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm
    Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
    Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains
    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m
    Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber
    Land use: arable land: 23.53%
    permanent crops: 2.37%
    other: 74.1% (2005)
    Irrigated land: 120 sq km (2003)
    Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north from December to March
    Current Environment Issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification
    International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Benin(BENİN)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:14 am

    People
    Population: 8,532,547 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
    Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.5% (male 1,978,897/female 1,901,005)
    15-64 years: 51.9% (male 2,195,667/female 2,236,458)
    65 years and over: 2.6% (male 91,213/female 129,307) (2008 est.)
    Median age: total: 17.1 years
    male: 16.7 years
    female: 17.6 years (2008 est.)
    Population growth rate: 3.01% (2008 est.)
    Birth rate: 39.8 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Death rate: 9.69 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
    Infant mortality rate: total: 66.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 69.68 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 62.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
    Life expectancy at birth: total population: 58.56 years
    male: 57.42 years
    female: 59.76 years (2008 est.)
    Total fertility rate: 5.58 children born/woman (2008 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.9% (2003 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 68,000 (2003 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths: 5,800 (2003 est.)
    Nationality: noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Beninese
    Ethnic groups: Fon and related 39.2%, Adja and related 15.2%, Yoruba and related 12.3%, Bariba and related 9.2%, Peulh and related 7%, Ottamari and related 6.1%, Yoa-Lokpa and related 4%, Dendi and related 2.5%, other 1.6% (includes Europeans), unspecified 2.9% (2002 census)
    Religions: Christian 42.8% (Catholic 27.1%, Celestial 5%, Methodist 3.2%, other Protestant 2.2%, other 5.3%), Muslim 24.4%, Vodoun 17.3%, other 15.5% (2002 census)
    Languages: French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)
    Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 34.7%
    male: 47.9%
    female: 23.3% (2002 census)
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Benin(BENİN)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:14 am

    Government
    Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Benin
    conventional short form: Benin
    local long form: Republique du Benin
    local short form: Benin
    former: Dahomey
    Government type: republic
    Capital: name: Porto-Novo (official capital)
    geographic coordinates: 6 29 N, 2 37 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    note: Cotonou (seat of government)
    Administrative divisions: 12 departments; Alibori, Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Collines, Kouffo, Donga, Littoral, Mono, Oueme, Plateau, Zou
    Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France)
    National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1960)
    Constitution: adopted by referendum 2 December 1990
    Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
    Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch: chief of state: President Thomas YAYI Boni (since 6 April 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Thomas YAYI Boni (since 6 April 2006)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); runoff election held 19 March 2006 (next to be held in March 2011)
    election results: Thomas YAYI Boni elected president; percent of vote - Thomas YAYI Boni 74.5%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI 25.5%
    Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (83 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
    elections: last held 31 March 2007 (next to be held by March 2011)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FCBE 35, ADD 20, PRD 10, other and independents 18
    Judicial branch: Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice
    Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Dynamic Democracy or ADD; Alliance of Progress Forces or AFP; African Movement for Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Benin Renaissance or RB [Rosine SOGLO]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Force Cowrie for an Emerging Benin or FCBE; Impulse for Progress and Democracy or IPD [Theophile NATA]; Key Force or FC [Lazare SÈHOUÉTO]; Movement for the People's Alternative or MAP [Olivier CAPO-CHICHI]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Dominique HOUNGNINOU]; Social Democrat Party or PSD [Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Union for the Relief or UPR [Issa SALIFOU]; Union for Democracy and National Solidarity or UDS [Sacca LAFIA]
    note: approximately 20 additional minor parties
    Political pressure groups and leaders: other: economic groups; environmentalists; political groups; teachers' unions and other educational groups
    International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cyrille Segbe OGUIN
    chancery: 2124 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656
    FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996
    Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gayleatha B. BROWN
    embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou
    mailing address: 01 B. P. 2012, Cotonou
    telephone: [229] 21-30-06-50
    FAX: [229] 21-30-03-84
    Executive branch: chief of state: President Thomas YAYI Boni (since 6 April 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Thomas YAYI Boni (since 6 April 2006) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); runoff election held 19 March 2006 (next to be held in March 2011) election results: Thomas YAYI Boni elected president; percent of vote - Thomas YAYI Boni 74.5%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI 25.5%
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Benin(BENİN)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:14 am

    Economy
    The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade. Growth in real output has averaged around 5% in the past seven years, but rapid population growth has offset much of this increase. Inflation has subsided over the past several years. In order to raise growth still further, Benin plans to attract more foreign investment, place more emphasis on tourism, facilitate the development of new food processing systems and agricultural products, and encourage new information and communication technology. Specific projects to improve the business climate by reforms to the land tenure system, the commercial justice system, and the financial sector were included in Benin's $307 million Millennium Challenge Account grant signed in February 2006. The 2001 privatization policy continues in telecommunications, water, electricity, and agriculture though the government annulled the privatization of Benin's state cotton company in November 2007 after the discovery of irregularities in the bidding process. The Paris Club and bilateral creditors have eased the external debt situation, with Benin benefiting from a G8 debt reduction announced in July 2005, while pressing for more rapid structural reforms. An insufficient electrical supply continues to adversely affect Benin's economic growth though the government recently has taken steps to increase domestic power production.
    GDP (purchasing power parity): $12 billion (2007 est.)
    GDP (official exchange rate): $5.433 billion (2007 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate: 4.5% (2007 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,400 (2007 est.)
    GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 33.2%
    industry: 14.5%
    services: 52.3% (2007 est.)
    Labor force: 5.38 million (2007 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation:
    Unemployment rate: NA%
    Population below poverty line: 37.4% (2007 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.1%
    highest 10%: 29% (2003)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index: 36.5 (2003)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (2007 est.)
    Investment (gross fixed): 19.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
    Budget: revenues: $959.2 million
    expenditures: $1.211 billion (2007 est.)
    Agriculture - products: cotton, corn, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, palm oil, peanuts, cashews; livestock
    Industries: textiles, food processing, construction materials, cement
    Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (2007 est.)
    Electricity - production: 120 million kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - consumption: 595 million kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - imports: 590 million kWh (2006 est.)
    Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - consumption: 9,232 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - exports: 6,484 bbl/day (2005)
    Oil - imports: 16,830 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - proved reserves: 8 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
    Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.133 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
    Current account balance: -$441 million (2007 est.)
    Exports: $586 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
    Exports - commodities: cotton, cashews, shea butter, textiles, palm products, seafood
    Exports - partners: China 24.7%, India 8.2%, Niger 6.6%, Togo 5.4%, Nigeria 5.3%, Belgium 4.6% (2007)
    Imports: $1.085 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
    Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, capital goods, petroleum products
    Imports - partners: China 44.5%, France 8.2%, US 6.5%, Thailand 6.3%, Malaysia 4.8% (2007)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.209 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Debt - external: $1.2 billion (2007)
    Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
    Currency (code): Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
    Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 493.51 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003) note: since 1 January 1999, the XOF franc has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF francs per euro
    Fiscal year: calendar year
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Benin(BENİN)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:14 am

    Communications
    Telephones in use: 110,300 (2007)
    Cellular Phones in use: 1.895 million (2007)
    Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate; fixed-line network characterized by aging, deteriorating equipment with fixed-line teledensity stuck at 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership is increasing
    domestic: system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and cellular connections; multiple mobile-cellular providers
    international: country code - 229; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 7 (Intelsat-Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
    Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 34, shortwave 1 (2007)
    Television broadcast stations: 6 (2007)
    Internet country code: .bj
    Internet hosts: 848 (2008)
    Internet users: 150,000 (2007)
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Benin(BENİN)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:14 am

    Transportation
    Airports: 5 (2007)
    Airports (paved runways): total: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
    Airports (unpaved runways): total: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)
    Railways: total: 758 km
    narrow gauge: 758 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
    Roadways: total: 16,000 km
    paved: 1,400 km
    unpaved: 14,600 km (2006)
    Waterways: 150 km (on River Niger along northern border) (2005)
    Ports and terminals: Cotonou
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Benin(BENİN)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 11:14 am

    Military

    Military branches: Benin Armed Forces (FAB): Army (l'Arme de Terre), Benin Navy (Forces Navales Beninois, FNB), Benin People's Air Force (Force Aerienne Populaire de Benin, FAPB) (2008)
    Military service age and obligation: 21 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; in practice, volunteers may be taken at the age of 18; both sexes are eligible for military service; conscript tour of duty - 18 months (2006)
    Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,908,457
    females age 16-49: 1,882,421 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,173,742
    females age 16-49: 1,162,113 (2008 est.)
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Benin(BENİN)   Bugün 9:52 am

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