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     Belarus,White Russia(BELARUS,BEYAZ RUSYA)

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    MesajKonu: Belarus,White Russia(BELARUS,BEYAZ RUSYA)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:27 pm

    After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former Soviet republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the accord, serious implementation has yet to take place. Since his election in July 1994 as the country's first president, Alexandr LUKASHENKO has steadily consolidated his power through authoritarian means. Government restrictions on freedom of speech and the press, peaceful assembly, and religion continue.
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Belarus,White Russia(BELARUS,BEYAZ RUSYA)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:27 pm

    Geography
    Landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes.
    Location: Eastern Europe, east of Poland
    Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 28 00 E
    Area: total: 207,600 sq km
    land: 207,600 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    Size comparison: slightly smaller than Kansas

    Land Boundaries: total: 3,306 km
    border countries: Latvia 171 km, Lithuania 680 km, Poland 605 km, Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km
    Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
    Climate: cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime
    Terrain: generally flat and contains much marshland
    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m
    highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m
    Natural resources: forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas, granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay
    Land use: arable land: 26.77%
    permanent crops: 0.6%
    other: 72.63% (2005)
    Irrigated land: 1,310 sq km (2003)
    Natural hazards: NA
    Current Environment Issues: soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine
    International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Belarus,White Russia(BELARUS,BEYAZ RUSYA)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:28 pm

    People
    Population: 9,685,768 (July 2008 est.)
    Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.4% (male 717,885/female 677,254)
    15-64 years: 70.9% (male 3,333,699/female 3,531,920)
    65 years and over: 14.7% (male 459,627/female 965,383) (2008 est.)
    Median age: total: 38.4 years
    male: 35.4 years
    female: 41.3 years (2008 est.)
    Population growth rate: -0.393% (2008 est.)
    Birth rate: 9.62 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Death rate: 13.92 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Net migration rate: 0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.87 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
    Infant mortality rate: total: 6.53 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 7.56 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 5.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
    Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.34 years
    male: 64.63 years
    female: 76.4 years (2008 est.)
    Total fertility rate: 1.23 children born/woman (2008 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2001 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 15,000 (2001 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,000 (2001 est.)
    Nationality: noun: Belarusian(s)
    adjective: Belarusian
    Ethnic groups: Belarusian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish 3.9%, Ukrainian 2.4%, other 1.1% (1999 census)
    Religions: Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)
    Languages: Belarusian, Russian, other
    Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.6%
    male: 99.8%
    female: 99.4% (1999 census)
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Belarus,White Russia(BELARUS,BEYAZ RUSYA)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:28 pm

    Government
    Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
    conventional short form: Belarus
    local long form: Respublika Byelarus'
    local short form: Byelarus'
    former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic
    Government type: republic in name, although in fact a dictatorship
    Capital: name: Minsk
    geographic coordinates: 53 54 N, 27 34 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (voblastsi, singular - voblasts') and 1 municipality* (horad); Brest, Homyel', Horad Minsk*, Hrodna, Mahilyow, Minsk, Vitsyebsk
    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers
    Independence: 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
    National holiday: Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
    Constitution: 15 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 November 1996 giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective 27 November 1996; revised again 17 October 2004 removing presidential term limits
    Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
    Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch: chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
    head of government: Prime Minister Sergey SIDORSKIY (since 19 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir SEMASHKO (since December 2003)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999, however, Aleksandr LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996 referendum; subsequent election held 9 September 2001; an October 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits and allowed the president to run in a third election, which was held on 19 March 2006; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
    election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 82.6%, Aleksandr MILINKEVICH 6%, Aleksandr KOZULIN 2.3%; note - election marred by electoral fraud
    Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of the Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats; 56 members elected by regional councils and eight members appointed by the president, to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Palata Predstaviteley (110 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
    elections: Palata Predstaviteley - last held 28 September 2008 (next to be held fall of 2012); international observers widely denounced the elections as flawed and undemocratic based on massive government falsification; pro-LUKASHENKO candidates won all 110 seats
    election results: Soviet Respubliki - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Palata Predstaviteley - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
    Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)
    Political parties and leaders: pro-government parties: Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY]; Belarusian Communist Party or KPB; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Nikolay ULAKHOVICH, chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party of Belarus [Sergey GAYDUKEVICH]; Party of Labor and Justice [Viktor SOKOLOV]; Social-Sports Party [Vladimir ALEXANDROVICH]
    opposition parties: Belarusian Christian Democracy Party (unregistered) [Pavel SEVERINETS]; Belarusian Party of Communists or PKB [Sergey KALYAKIN]; Belarusian Party of Labor (unregistered) [Aleksandr BUKHVOSTOV, Leonid LEMESHONAK]; Belarusian Popular Front or BPF [Vintsyuk VYACHORKA]; Belarusian Social-Democratic Gramada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH]; Belarusian Social Democratic Party Hramada (People's Assembly) or BSDPH [Aleksandr KOZULIN; Anatoliy LEVKOVICH, acting]; Green Party [Oleg GROMYKO]; Party of Freedom and Progress (unregistered) [Vladimir NOVOSYAD]; United Civic Party or UCP [Anatoliy LEBEDKO]; Women's Party "Nadezhda" [Valentina MATUSEVICH, chairperson]
    other opposition includes: Christian Conservative BPF [Zyanon PAZNIAK]; Ecological Party of Greens [Mikhail KARTASH]; Party of Popular Accord [Sergey YERMAKK]; Republican Party [Vladimir BELAZOR]
    Political pressure groups and leaders: Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH]; Belarusian Congress of Democratic Trade Unions [Aleksandr YAROSHUK]; Belarusian Helsinki Committee [Tatiana PROTKO]; Belarusian Organization of Working Women [Irina ZHIKHAR]; Charter 97 [Andrey SANNIKOV]; For Freedom (unregistered) [Aleksandr MILINKEVICH]; Lenin Communist Union of Youth (youth wing of the Belarusian Party of Communists or PKB); National Strike Committee of Entrepreneurs [Aleksandr VASILYEV, Valery LEVONEVSKY]; Partnership NGO [Nikolay ASTREYKA]; Perspektiva kiosk watchdog NGO [Anatol SHUMCHENKO]; Vyasna [Ales BYALATSKY]; Women's Independent Democratic Movement [Ludmila PETINA]; Youth Front (Malady Front) [Dmitriy DASHKEVICH, Sergey BAKHUN]; Zubr youth group [Vladimir KOBETS]
    International organization participation: BSEC (observer), CEI, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mikhail KHVOSTOV
    chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604
    FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805
    consulate(s) general: New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jonathan MOORE
    embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya Street, Minsk 220002
    mailing address: PSC 78, Box B Minsk, APO 09723
    telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83, 217-7347, 217-7348
    FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853
    Executive branch: chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994) head of government: Prime Minister Sergey SIDORSKIY (since 19 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir SEMASHKO (since December 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999, however, Aleksandr LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996 referendum; subsequent election held 9 September 2001; an October 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits and allowed the president to run in a third election, which was held on 19 March 2006; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 82.6%, Aleksandr MILINKEVICH 6%, Aleksandr KOZULIN 2.3%; note - election marred by electoral fraud
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Belarus,White Russia(BELARUS,BEYAZ RUSYA)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:28 pm

    Economy
    Belarus has seen little structural reform since 1995, when President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of "market socialism." In keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO reimposed administrative controls over prices and currency exchange rates and expanded the state's right to intervene in the management of private enterprises. Since 2005, the government has re-nationalized a number of private companies. In addition, businesses have been subject to pressure by central and local governments, e.g., arbitrary changes in regulations, numerous rigorous inspections, retroactive application of new business regulations, and arrests of "disruptive" businessmen and factory owners. A wide range of redistributive policies has helped those at the bottom of the ladder; the Gini coefficient is among the lowest in the world. Because of these restrictive economic policies, Belarus has had trouble attracting foreign investment. Nevertheless, GDP growth has been strong in recent years, reaching nearly 7% in 2007, despite the roadblocks of a tough, centrally directed economy with a high, but decreasing, rate of inflation. Belarus receives heavily discounted oil and natural gas from Russia and much of Belarus' growth can be attributed to the re-export of Russian oil at market prices. Trade with Russia - by far its largest single trade partner - decreased in 2007, largely as a result of a change in the way the Value Added Tax (VAT) on trade was collected. Russia has introduced an export duty on oil shipped to Belarus, which will increase gradually through 2009, and a requirement that Belarusian duties on re-exported Russian oil be shared with Russia - 80% will go to Russia in 2008, and 85% in 2009. Russia also increased Belarusian natural gas prices from $47 per thousand cubic meters (tcm) to $100 per tcm in 2007, and plans to increase prices gradually to world levels by 2011. Russia's recent policy of bringing energy prices for Belarus to world market levels may result in a slowdown in economic growth in Belarus over the next few years. Some policy measures, including tightening of fiscal and monetary policies, improving energy efficiency, and diversifying exports, have been introduced, but external borrowing has been the main mechanism used to manage the growing pressures on the economy.
    GDP (purchasing power parity): $103.5 billion (2007 est.)
    GDP (official exchange rate): $44.77 billion (2007 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate: 8.2% (2007 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP): $10,600 (2007 est.)
    GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8.7%
    industry: 40.6%
    services: 50.6% (2007 est.)
    Labor force: 4.3 million (31 December 2005)
    Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 14%
    industry: 34.7%
    services: 51.3% (2003 est.)
    Unemployment rate: 1.6% officially registered unemployed; large number of underemployed workers (2005)
    Population below poverty line: 27.1% (2003 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.4%
    highest 10%: 23.5% (2002)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index: 29.7 (2002)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.4% (2007 est.)
    Investment (gross fixed): 30.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
    Budget: revenues: $20.75 billion
    expenditures: $20.87 billion (2007 est.)
    Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk
    Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, televisions, synthetic fibers, fertilizer, textiles, radios, refrigerators
    Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2007 est.)
    Electricity - production: 29.91 billion kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - consumption: 30.43 billion kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - exports: 5.789 billion kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - imports: 10.15 billion kWh (2006 est.)
    Oil - production: 33,700 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - consumption: 179,700 bbl/day (2006 est.)
    Oil - exports: 256,400 bbl/day (2005 est.)
    Oil - imports: 394,100 bbl/day (2005 est.)
    Oil - proved reserves: 198 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
    Natural gas - production: 164 million cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption: 21.76 billion cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - imports: 21.6 billion cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.832 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
    Current account balance: -$2.876 billion (2007 est.)
    Exports: $24.47 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
    Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals, textiles, foodstuffs
    Exports - partners: Russia 36.5%, Netherlands 17.8%, UK 6.3%, Ukraine 6.1%, Poland 5%, Latvia 4.1% (2007)
    Imports: $28.32 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
    Imports - commodities: mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, metals
    Imports - partners: Russia 59.9%, Germany 7.6%, Ukraine 5.4% (2007)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $4.266 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Debt - external: $7.347 billion (31 December 2007)
    Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
    Currency (code): Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR)
    Exchange rates: Belarusian rubles (BYB/BYR) per US dollar - 2,145 (2007), 2,144.6 (2006), 2,150 (2005), 2,160.26 (2004), 2,051.27 (2003)
    Fiscal year: calendar year
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Belarus,White Russia(BELARUS,BEYAZ RUSYA)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:29 pm

    Communications
    Telephones in use: 3.672 million (2007)
    Cellular Phones in use: 5.96 million (2006)
    Telephone system: general assessment: Belarus lags behind its neighbors in upgrading telecommunications infrastructure; state-owned Beltelcom is the sole provider of fixed-line local and long distance service; fixed-line teledensity of roughly 35 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density of about 60 per 100 persons; modernization of the network progressing with roughly two-thirds of switching equipment now digital
    domestic: fixed-line penetration is improving although rural areas continue to be underserved; 3 GSM wireless networks are experiencing rapid growth; strict government controls on telecommunications technologies
    international: country code - 375; Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); 3 fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations (2007)
    Radio broadcast stations: AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)
    Television broadcast stations: 47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)
    Internet country code: .by
    Internet hosts: 68,118 (2008)
    Internet users: 6 million (2007)
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Belarus,White Russia(BELARUS,BEYAZ RUSYA)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:29 pm

    Transportation
    Airports: 67 (2007)
    Airports (paved runways): total: 36
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 22
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
    914 to 1,523 m: 1
    under 914 m: 7 (2007)
    Airports (unpaved runways): total: 31
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    under 914 m: 27 (2007)
    Heliports: 1 (2007)
    Pipelines: gas 5,250 km; oil 1,528 km; refined products 1,730 km (2007)
    Railways: total: 5,512 km
    broad gauge: 5,497 km 1.520-m gauge (874 km electrified)
    standard gauge: 15 km 1.435 m (2006)
    Roadways: total: 94,797 km
    paved: 84,028 km
    unpaved: 10,769 km (2005)
    Waterways: 2,500 km (use limited by location on perimeter of country and by shallowness) (2003)
    Ports and terminals: Mazyr
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Belarus,White Russia(BELARUS,BEYAZ RUSYA)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:29 pm

    Military

    Military branches: Belarus Armed Forces: Land Force, Air and Air Defense Force (2008)
    Military service age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 18 months (2005)
    Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,491,643
    females age 16-49: 2,528,779 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,727,974
    females age 16-49: 2,093,106 (2008 est.)
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Belarus,White Russia(BELARUS,BEYAZ RUSYA)   Bugün 8:30 am

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    Belarus,White Russia(BELARUS,BEYAZ RUSYA)
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