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 Belize(BELİZE)

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MesajKonu: Belize(BELİZE)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:30 pm

Belize was the site of several Mayan city states until their decline at the end of the first millennium A.D. The British and Spanish disputed the region in the 17th and 18th centuries; it formally became the colony of British Honduras in 1854. Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the independence of Belize until 1981. Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992. Tourism has become the mainstay of the economy. Current concerns include an unsustainable foreign debt, high unemployment, growing involvement in the South American drug trade, growing urban crime, and increasing incidences of HIV/AIDS.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Belize(BELİZE)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:30 pm

Geography
Only country in Central America without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean.
Location: Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Mexico
Geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 45 W
Area: total: 22,966 sq km
land: 22,806 sq km
water: 160 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land Boundaries: total: 516 km
border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km
Coastline: 386 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note - from the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial sea is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for negotiating a definitive agreement on territorial differences with Guatemala
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry season (February to May)
Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Doyle's Delight 1,160 m
Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 3.05%
permanent crops: 1.39%
other: 95.56% (2005)
Irrigated land: 30 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal flooding (especially in south)
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff; solid and sewage waste disposal
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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MesajKonu: Geri: Belize(BELİZE)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:30 pm

People
Population: 301,270 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.4% (male 58,987/female 56,674)
15-64 years: 58.1% (male 88,521/female 86,450)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 5,095/female 5,543) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 20.1 years
male: 20 years
female: 20.3 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.207% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 27.84 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 5.77 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: NA (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 23.65 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.35 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.19 years
male: 66.39 years
female: 70.08 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.44 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.4% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,600 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Belizean(s)
adjective: Belizean
Ethnic groups: mestizo 48.7%, Creole 24.9%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 9.7% (2000 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 49.6%, Protestant 27% (Pentecostal 7.4%, Anglican 5.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5.2%, Mennonite 4.1%, Methodist 3.5%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.5%), other 14%, none 9.4% (2000)
Languages: Spanish 46%, Creole 32.9%, Mayan dialects 8.9%, English 3.9% (official), Garifuna 3.4% (Carib), German 3.3%, other 1.4%, unknown 0.2% (2000 census)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.9%
male: 76.7%
female: 77.1% (2000 census)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Belize(BELİZE)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:30 pm

Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Belize
former: British Honduras
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Belmopan
geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 46 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1981)
Constitution: 21 September 1981
Legal system: English law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17 November 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Dean BARROW (since 8 February 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Gaspar VEGA (since 12 February 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (12 seats; members appointed by the governor general - 6 on the advice of the prime minister, 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and 1 each on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and Evangelical Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Belize Better Business Bureau, and the National Trade Union Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee; to serve five-year terms) and the House of Representatives (31 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 6 February 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UDP 25, PUP 6
Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders: National Alliance for Belizean Rights or NABR; National Reform Party or NRP [Cornelius DUECK]; People's National Party or PNP [Wil MAHEIA]; People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Dean BARROW]; Vision Inspired by the People or VIP [Paul MORGAN]; We the People Reform Movement or WTP [Hipolito BAUTISTA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Gustavo PERERA]; Association of Concerned Belizeans or ACB [David VASQUEZ]; National Trade Union Congress of Belize or NTUC/B [Rene GOMEZ]
International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nestor MENDEZ
chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert J. DIETER
embassy: Floral Park Road, Belmopan City, Cayo District
mailing address: P.O. Box 497, Belmopan City, Cayo District, Belize
telephone: [501] 822-4011
FAX: [501] 822-4012
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17 November 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Dean BARROW (since 8 February 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Gaspar VEGA (since 12 February 2008) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
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MesajKonu: Geri: Belize(BELİZE)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:31 pm

Economy
In this small, essentially private-enterprise economy, tourism is the number one foreign exchange earner followed by exports of marine products, citrus, cane sugar, bananas, and garments. The government's expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in September 1998, led to sturdy GDP growth averaging nearly 4% in 1999-2007. Oil discoveries in 2006 bolstered the economic growth in 2006 and 2007. Major concerns continue to be the sizable trade deficit and unsustainable foreign debt. In February 2007, the government restructured nearly all of its public external commercial debt, which will reduce interest payments and relieve liquidity concerns. A key short-term objective remains the reduction of poverty with the help of international donors.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.444 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.274 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.2% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $7,900 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 21.3%
industry: 13.7%
services: 65% (2007 est.)
Labor force: 113,000 note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 22.5%
industry: 15.2%
services: 62.3% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 9.4% (2006)
Population below poverty line: 33.5% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 19.7% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget: revenues: $307 million
expenditures: $344 million (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, cacao, citrus, sugar; fish, cultured shrimp; lumber; garments
Industries: garment production, food processing, tourism, construction, oil
Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production: 213.5 million kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 193.3 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 3,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 7,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 1,960 bbl/day (2006)
Oil - imports: 7,122 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 6.7 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: -$43 million (2007 est.)
Exports: $429 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities: sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood
Exports - partners: US 28.7%, UK 16.3%, Thailand 5.8%, Cote d'Ivoire 5.4%, Finland 4.2%, Spain 4% (2007)
Imports: $642 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; food, beverages, tobacco
Imports - partners: US 31.2%, Mexico 13.6%, Cuba 8.5%, Guatemala 8%, Russia 4.6% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $109 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external: $1.2 billion (June 2005 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Currency (code): Belizean dollar (BZD)
Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (BZD) per US dollar - 2 (2007), 2 (2006), 2 (2005), 2 (2004), 2 (2003)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
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MesajKonu: Geri: Belize(BELİZE)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:31 pm

Communications
Telephones in use: 33,900 (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 118,300 (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: above-average system; fixed-line teledensity of 12 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density of about 40 per 100 persons
domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
international: country code - 501; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth station - 8 (Intelsat - 2, unknown - 6) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 16, shortwave 0 (2006)
Television broadcast stations: 5 (2006)
Internet country code: .bz
Internet hosts: 2,751 (2008)
Internet users: 32,000 (2007)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Belize(BELİZE)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:31 pm

Transportation
Airports: 44 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 40
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 27 (2007)
Roadways: total: 3,007 km
paved: 575 km
unpaved: 2,432 km (2006)
Waterways: 825 km (navigable only by small craft) (2007)
Merchant marine: total: 216
by type: barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 32, cargo 152, chemical tanker 2, container 1, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 9, refrigerated cargo 12, roll on/roll off 5, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 178 (Australia 1, China 71, Croatia 2, Cyprus 1, Estonia 6, Greece 1, Iceland 2, Italy 3, Japan 8, South Korea 1, Latvia 12, Norway 3, Peru 1, Russia 31, Singapore 2, Spain 1, Turkey 15, Ukraine 7, UAE 5, UK 5) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Belize City, Big Creek
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MesajKonu: Geri: Belize(BELİZE)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:31 pm

Military

Military branches: Belize Defense Force (BDF): Army, BDF Air Wing, BDF Volunteer Guard (2007)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; laws allow for conscription only if volunteers are insufficient; conscription has never been implemented; volunteers typically outnumber available positions by 3:1 (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 74,605
females age 16-49: 72,926 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 54,627
females age 16-49: 53,500 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Belize(BELİZE)   Bugün 9:54 pm

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