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     Central African Republic(ORTA AFRİKA CUMHURİYETİ)

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    MesajKonu: Central African Republic(ORTA AFRİKA CUMHURİYETİ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:39 pm

    The former French colony of Ubangi-Shari became the Central African Republic upon independence in 1960. After three tumultuous decades of misrule - mostly by military governments - civilian rule was established in 1993 and lasted for one decade. President Ange-Felix PATASSE's civilian government was plagued by unrest, and in March 2003 he was deposed in a military coup led by General Francois BOZIZE, who established a transitional government. Though the government has the tacit support of civil society groups and the main parties, a wide field of candidates contested the municipal, legislative, and presidential elections held in March and May of 2005 in which General BOZIZE was affirmed as president. The government still does not fully control the countryside, where pockets of lawlessness persist. Unrest in neighboring nations, Chad, Sudan, and the DRC, continues to affect stability in the Central African Republic as well.


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    MesajKonu: Geri: Central African Republic(ORTA AFRİKA CUMHURİYETİ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:39 pm

    Geography
    Landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa.
    Location: Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo
    Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 21 00 E
    Area: total: 622,984 sq km
    land: 622,984 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    Size comparison: slightly smaller than Texas

    Land Boundaries: total: 5,203 km
    border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km
    Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
    Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers
    Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in northeast and southwest
    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m
    highest point: Mont Ngaoui 1,420 m
    Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil, hydropower
    Land use: arable land: 3.1%
    permanent crops: 0.15%
    other: 96.75% (2005)
    Irrigated land: 20 sq km (2003)
    Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; floods are common
    Current Environment Issues: tap water is not potable; poaching has diminished the country's reputation as one of the last great wildlife refuges; desertification; deforestation
    International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Central African Republic(ORTA AFRİKA CUMHURİYETİ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:39 pm

    People
    Population: 4,444,330 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
    Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.3% (male 922,053/female 911,601)
    15-64 years: 54.6% (male 1,206,121/female 1,221,158)
    65 years and over: 4.1% (male 71,597/female 111,800) (2008 est.)
    Median age: total: 18.7 years
    male: 18.4 years
    female: 19 years (2008 est.)
    Population growth rate: 1.509% (2008 est.)
    Birth rate: 33.13 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Death rate: 18.04 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Net migration rate: NA (2008 est.)
    Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
    Infant mortality rate: total: 82.13 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 88.84 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 75.23 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
    Life expectancy at birth: total population: 44.22 years
    male: 44.14 years
    female: 44.29 years (2008 est.)
    Total fertility rate: 4.23 children born/woman (2008 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 13.5% (2003 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 260,000 (2003 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths: 23,000 (2003 est.)
    Nationality: noun: Central African(s)
    adjective: Central African
    Ethnic groups: Baya 33%, Banda 27%, Mandjia 13%, Sara 10%, Mboum 7%, M'Baka 4%, Yakoma 4%, other 2%
    Religions: indigenous beliefs 35%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim 15%
    note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian majority
    Languages: French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), tribal languages
    Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 48.6%
    male: 64.8%
    female: 33.5% (2000 est.)
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Central African Republic(ORTA AFRİKA CUMHURİYETİ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:39 pm

    Government
    Country name: conventional long form: Central African Republic
    conventional short form: none
    local long form: Republique Centrafricaine
    local short form: none
    former: Ubangi-Shari, Central African Empire
    abbreviation: CAR
    Government type: republic
    Capital: name: Bangui
    geographic coordinates: 4 22 N, 18 35 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures economiques, singular - prefecture economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui**, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo, Lobaye, Mambere-Kadei, Mbomou, Nana-Grebizi*, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha-Mbaere*, Vakaga
    Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France)
    National holiday: Republic Day, 1 December (1958)
    Constitution: ratified by popular referendum 5 December 2004; effective 27 December 2004
    Legal system: based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
    Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal
    Executive branch: chief of state: President Francois BOZIZE (since 15 March 2003 coup)
    head of government: Prime Minister Faustin-Archange TOUADERA (since 22 January 2008)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers
    elections: under the new constitution, the president elected to a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 13 March and 8 May 2005 (next to be held in 2010); prime minister appointed by the political party with a parliamentary majority
    election results: Francois BOZIZE elected president; percent of second round balloting - Francois BOZIZE (KNK) 64.6%, Martin ZIGUELE (MLPC) 35.4%
    Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (105 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held 13 March 2005 and 8 May 2005 (next to be held in 2010)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - KNK 42, MLPC 11, RDC 8, PSD 4, FPP 2, ADP 2, LONDO 1, independents 34, other 1
    Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court (3 judges appointed by the president, 3 by the president of the National Assembly, and 3 by fellow judges); Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Inferior Courts
    Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP [Jacques MBOLIEDAS]; Central African Democratic Rally or RDC [Andre KOLINGBA]; Civic Forum or FC [Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Forum for Modernity or FODEM [Charles MASSI]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Londo Association or LONDO; Movement for Democracy and Development or MDD [David DACKO]; Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People or MLPC [Ange-Felix PATASSE] (the party of deposed president); National Convergence or KNK; Patriotic Front for Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA]; People's Union for the Republic or UPR [Pierre Sammy MAKFOY]; National Unity Party or PUN [Jean-Paul NGOUPANDE]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Enoch LAKOUE]
    Political pressure groups and leaders: Monam (combating gender-base violence)
    International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Emmanuel TOUABOY
    chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 483-7800
    FAX: [1] (202) 332-9893
    Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Frederick B. COOK
    embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
    mailing address: B. P. 924, Bangui
    telephone: [236] 61 02 00
    FAX: [236] 61 44 94
    note: the embassy is currently operating with a minimal staff
    Executive branch: chief of state: President Francois BOZIZE (since 15 March 2003 coup) head of government: Prime Minister Faustin-Archange TOUADERA (since 22 January 2008) cabinet: Council of Ministers elections: under the new constitution, the president elected to a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 13 March and 8 May 2005 (next to be held in 2010); prime minister appointed by the political party with a parliamentary majority election results: Francois BOZIZE elected president; percent of second round balloting - Francois BOZIZE (KNK) 64.6%, Martin ZIGUELE (MLPC) 35.4%
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Central African Republic(ORTA AFRİKA CUMHURİYETİ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:40 pm

    Economy
    Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry, remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic (CAR), with more than 70% of the population living in outlying areas. The agricultural sector generates more than half of GDP. Timber has accounted for about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry, for 40%. Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor transportation system, a largely unskilled work force, and a legacy of misdirected macroeconomic policies. Factional fighting between the government and its opponents remains a drag on economic revitalization. Distribution of income is extraordinarily unequal. Grants from France and the international community can only partially meet humanitarian needs.
    GDP (purchasing power parity): $3.007 billion (2007 est.)
    GDP (official exchange rate): $1.714 billion (2007 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2007 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP): $700 (2007 est.)
    GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 55%
    industry: 20%
    services: 25% (2001 est.)
    Labor force: 1.857 million (2006)
    Labor force - by occupation:
    Unemployment rate: 8% (23% for Bangui) (2001 est.)
    Population below poverty line: NA%
    Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.7%
    highest 10%: 47.7% (1993)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index: 61.3 (1993)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (2007 est.)
    Budget: revenues: $250 million
    expenditures: $273 million (2007 est.)
    Agriculture - products: timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca), yams, millet, corn, bananas; timber
    Industries: gold and diamond mining, logging, brewing, textiles, footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles
    Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2002)
    Electricity - production: 110 million kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - consumption: 102.3 million kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
    Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - consumption: 2,322 bbl/day (2006 est.)
    Oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2005)
    Oil - imports: 2,057 bbl/day (2005)
    Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
    Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006)
    Current account balance: -$77 million (2007 est.)
    Exports: $146.7 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
    Exports - commodities: diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco
    Exports - partners: Belgium 22.7%, Indonesia 19.3%, Italy 7.7%, France 7.1%, Spain 6.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.8%, China 4.9%, Turkey 4.7% (2007)
    Imports: $237.3 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
    Imports - commodities: food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
    Imports - partners: France 16.6%, Netherlands 13%, Cameroon 9.7%, US 6.3% (2007)
    Debt - external: $1.153 billion (2007 est.)
    Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
    Currency (code): Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
    Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 481.8 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003)
    Fiscal year: calendar year
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Central African Republic(ORTA AFRİKA CUMHURİYETİ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:40 pm

    Communications
    Telephones in use: 12,000 (2006)
    Cellular Phones in use: 130,000 (2007)
    Telephone system: general assessment: limited telephone service; fixed-line connections for well less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular usage of only about 3 per 100 persons; most fixed-line and cellular telephone services are concentrated in Bangui
    domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication
    international: country code - 236; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
    Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 1 (2001)
    Television broadcast stations: 1 (2001)
    Internet country code: .cf
    Internet hosts: 21 (2008)
    Internet users: 13,000 (2006)
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Central African Republic(ORTA AFRİKA CUMHURİYETİ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:40 pm

    Transportation
    Airports: 51 (2007)
    Airports (paved runways): total: 3
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2007)
    Airports (unpaved runways): total: 48
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
    914 to 1,523 m: 24
    under 914 m: 13 (2007)
    Roadways: total: 24,307 km (2000)
    Waterways: 2,800 km (primarily on the Oubangui and Sangha rivers) (2006)
    Ports and terminals: Bangui, Nola, Salo, Nzinga
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Central African Republic(ORTA AFRİKA CUMHURİYETİ)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:40 pm

    Military

    Military branches: Central African Armed Forces (Forces Armees Centrafricaines, FACA): Ground Forces, General Directorate of Gendarmerie Inspection (DGIG), Military Air Service, National Police (2008)
    Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2006)
    Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,032,828
    females age 16-49: 999,330 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 534,141
    females age 16-49: 495,303 (2008 est.)
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Central African Republic(ORTA AFRİKA CUMHURİYETİ)   Bugün 2:49 am

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