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MesajKonu: Congo(KONGO)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:41 pm

Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government took office in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, and ushered in a period of ethnic and political unrest. Southern-based rebel groups agreed to a final peace accord in March 2003, but the calm is tenuous and refugees continue to present a humanitarian crisis. The Republic of Congo was once one of Africa's largest petroleum producers, but with declining production it will need new offshore oil finds to sustain its oil earnings over the long term.


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MesajKonu: Geri: Congo(KONGO)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:41 pm

Geography
About 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them.
Location: Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon
Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 15 00 E
Area: total: 342,000 sq km
land: 341,500 sq km
water: 500 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than Montana

Land Boundaries: total: 5,504 km
border countries: Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon 1,903 km
Coastline: 169 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); persistent high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator
Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m
Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, gold, magnesium, natural gas, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 1.45%
permanent crops: 0.15%
other: 98.4% (2005)
Irrigated land: 20 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: seasonal flooding
Current Environment Issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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MesajKonu: Geri: Congo(KONGO)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:41 pm

People
Population: 3,903,318 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 46.1% (male 906,345/female 894,568)
15-64 years: 51% (male 989,126/female 1,002,682)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 45,560/female 65,037) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 16.7 years
male: 16.5 years
female: 17 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.696% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 41.76 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 12.28 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 81.29 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 86.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 75.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.74 years
male: 52.52 years
female: 55 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.92 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.9% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 90,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 9,700 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo
Ethnic groups: Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans and other 3%
Religions: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%
Languages: French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo is the most widespread)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.8%
male: 89.6%
female: 78.4% (2003 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Congo(KONGO)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:42 pm

Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: Congo (Brazzaville)
local long form: Republique du Congo
local short form: none
former: Middle Congo, Congo/Brazzaville, Congo
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Brazzaville
geographic coordinates: 4 15 S, 15 17 E
time difference: UTC+1 (six hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Cuvette-Ouest, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha
Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 15 August (1960)
Constitution: approved by referendum 20 January 2002
Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA);
head of government: Prime Minister Isidore MVOUBA (since 7 January 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO reelected president; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO 89.4%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU 2.7%
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (66 seats; members are elected by indirect vote to serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (137 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 11 July 2002 (next to be held in July 2008); National Assembly - last held 24 June and 5 August 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FDU 56, other 10; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PCT 46, MCDDI 11, UPADS 11, MAR 5, MSD 5, independents 37, other 22
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders: Action Movement for Renewal or MAR; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Congolese Labour Party or PCT; Movement for Solidarity and Development or MSD; Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Rally for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]; Rally for Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond Damasge NGOLLO]; Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR; United Democratic Forces or FDU [Sebastian EBAO]; many less important parties
Political pressure groups and leaders: Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Serge MOMBOULI
chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Allan EASTHAM
embassy: Boulevard de la Revolution, BDEAC Building, 4th Floor, Brazzaville; note - a new embassy is expected to open in 2009
mailing address: B.P. 1015, Brazzaville
telephone: [242] 281-1481, [242] 281-3368; note - until the new embassy in Brazzaville becomes operational, some duties will still be handled in the US embassy in Kinshasha, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Executive branch: chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); head of government: Prime Minister Isidore MVOUBA (since 7 January 2005) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held in 2009) election results: Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO reelected president; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO 89.4%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU 2.7%
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MesajKonu: Geri: Congo(KONGO)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:42 pm

Economy
The economy is a mixture of subsistence agriculture, an industrial sector based largely on oil, and support services, and a government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a major share of government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the government to finance large-scale development projects with GDP growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. The government has mortgaged a substantial portion of its oil earnings through oil-backed loans that have contributed to a growing debt burden and chronic revenue shortfalls. Economic reform efforts have been undertaken with the support of international organizations, notably the World Bank and the IMF. However, the reform program came to a halt in June 1997 when civil war erupted. Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, who returned to power when the war ended in October 1997, publicly expressed interest in moving forward on economic reforms and privatization and in renewing cooperation with international financial institutions. Economic progress was badly hurt by slumping oil prices and the resumption of armed conflict in December 1998, which worsened the republic's budget deficit. The current administration presides over an uneasy internal peace and faces difficult economic challenges of stimulating recovery and reducing poverty. Recovery of oil prices has boosted the economy's GDP and near-term prospects. In March 2006, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) treatment for Congo.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $12.86 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $7.657 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -1.6% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,400 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5.6%
industry: 57.1%
services: 37.3% (2006 est.)
Labor force: NA
Labor force - by occupation:
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 40.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget: revenues: $3.295 billion
expenditures: $2.444 billion (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products: cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products
Industries: petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes
Industrial production growth rate: -12% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production: 444 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 564 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 411 million kWh (2006 est.)
Oil - production: 261,000 bbl/day
Oil - consumption: 7,677 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 230,200 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - imports: 1,702 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 1.6 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 180 million cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 180 million cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 90.61 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.491 billion (2007 est.)
Exports: $5.8 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds
Exports - partners: US 41%, China 36.5%, Taiwan 3.6% (2007)
Imports: $2.634 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: France 18.1%, South Korea 14.7%, China 12.6%, Italy 10.3%, India 4.7%, US 4.2% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.206 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external: $5 billion (2000 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Currency (code): Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 483.6 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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MesajKonu: Geri: Congo(KONGO)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:42 pm

Communications
Telephones in use: 15,900 (2005)
Cellular Phones in use: 1.334 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out of order; fixed-line infrastructure inadequate providing less than 1 connection per 100 persons; in the absence of an adequate fixed line infrastructure, mobile-cellular subscribership has surged reaching 35 per 100 persons
domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable
international: country code - 242; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 3 (2001)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (2001)
Internet country code: .cg
Internet hosts: 5 (2008)
Internet users: 70,000 (2006)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Congo(KONGO)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:42 pm

Transportation
Airports: 31 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 5
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 9 (2007)
Pipelines: gas 89 km; liquid petroleum gas 4 km; oil 758 km (2007)
Railways: total: 894 km
narrow gauge: 894 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)
Roadways: total: 17,289 km
paved: 864 km
unpaved: 16,425 km (2004)
Waterways: 1,125 km (commercially navigable on Congo and Oubanqui rivers) (2006)
Merchant marine: registered in other countries: 1 (Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Brazzaville, Djeno, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire
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MesajKonu: Geri: Congo(KONGO)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 1:42 pm

Military

Military branches: Congolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Congolaises, FAC): Army, Navy, Congolese Air Force (Armee de l'Air Congolaise), Gendarmerie, Special Presidential Security Guard (GSSP) (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; women allowed to serve (2007)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 842,771
females age 16-49: 833,624 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 519,296
females age 16-49: 509,564 (2008 est.)
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