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 Cyprus(KIBRIS)

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MesajKonu: Cyprus(KIBRIS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 4:49 pm

A former British colony, Cyprus became independent in 1960 following years of resistance to British rule. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority came to a head in December 1963, when violence broke out in the capital of Nicosia. Despite the deployment of UN peacekeepers in 1964, sporadic intercommunal violence continued forcing most Turkish Cypriots into enclaves throughout the island. In 1974, a Greek Government-sponsored attempt to seize control of Cyprus was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled more than a third of the island. In 1983, the Turkish-held area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), but it is recognized only by Turkey. The latest two-year round of UN-brokered talks - between the leaders of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities to reach an agreement to reunite the divided island - ended when the Greek Cypriots rejected the UN settlement plan in an April 2004 referendum. The entire island entered the EU on 1 May 2004, although the EU acquis - the body of common rights and obligations - applies only to the areas under direct government control, and is suspended in the areas administered by Turkish Cypriots. However, individual Turkish Cypriots able to document their eligibility for Republic of Cyprus citizenship legally enjoy the same rights accorded to other citizens of European Union states. The election of a new Cypriot president in 2008 served as the impetus for the UN to encourage both the Turkish and Cypriot Governments to reopen unification negotiations.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Cyprus(KIBRIS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 4:50 pm

Geography
The third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia).
Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey
Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 33 00 E
Area: total: 9,250 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in north Cyprus)
land: 9,240 sq km
water: 10 sq km
Size comparison: about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land Boundaries: total: 150.4 km (approximately)
border sovereign base areas: Akrotiri 47.4 km, Dhekelia 103 km (approximately)
Coastline: 648 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters
Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Olympus 1,951 m
Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment
Land use: arable land: 10.81%
permanent crops: 4.32%
other: 84.87% (2005)
Irrigated land: 400 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity; droughts
Current Environment Issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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MesajKonu: Geri: Cyprus(KIBRIS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 4:50 pm

People
Population: 792,604 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.5% (male 78,922/female 75,523)
15-64 years: 68.5% (male 275,223/female 267,798)
65 years and over: 12% (male 41,592/female 53,546) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 35.3 years
male: 34.3 years
female: 36.4 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.522% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 12.56 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 7.76 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 6.75 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.34 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.15 years
male: 75.75 years
female: 80.67 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: fewer than 1,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Cypriot(s)
adjective: Cypriot
Ethnic groups: Greek 77%, Turkish 18%, other 5% (2001)
Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, other (includes Maronite and Armenian Apostolic) 4%
Languages: Greek, Turkish, English
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.6%
male: 98.9%
female: 96.3% (2001 census)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Cyprus(KIBRIS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 4:51 pm

Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
conventional short form: Cyprus
local long form: Kypriaki Dimokratia/Kibris Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Kypros/Kibris
note: the Turkish Cypriot community, which administers the northern part of the island, refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)
Government type: republic
note: a separation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in July 1974 that followed a Greek junta-supported coup attempt gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which is recognized only by Turkey
Capital: name: Nicosia (Lefkosia)
geographic coordinates: 35 10 N, 33 22 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish Cypriot area's administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts of Lefkosia (Nicosia)
Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK); note - Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are only recognized by Turkey
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriots celebrate 15 November (1983) as Independence Day
Constitution: 16 August 1960 note: from December 1963, the Turkish Cypriots no longer participated in the government; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and for better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently since the mid-1960s; in 1975, following the 1974 Turkish intervention, Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which became the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC)" when the Turkish Cypriots declared their independence in 1983; a new constitution for the "TRNC" passed by referendum on 5 May 1985, although the "TRNC" remains unrecognized by any country other than Turkey
Legal system: based on English common law, with civil law modifications; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS (since 28 February 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
head of government: President Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS (since 28 February 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and vice president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 17 and 24 February 2008 (next to be held in February 2013)
election results: Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS elected president; percent of vote (first round) - Ioannis KASOULIDIS 33.5%, Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS 33.3%, Tassos PAPADOPOULOS 31.8%; (second round) Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS 53.4%, Ioannis KASOULIDIS 46.6%
note: Mehmet Ali TALAT became "president" of the "TRNC", 24 April 2005, after "presidential" elections on 17 April 2005; results - Mehmet Ali TALAT 55.6%, Dervis EROGLU 22.7%; Ferdi Sabit SOYER is "TRNC prime minister" and heads the Council of Ministers (cabinet) in coalition with "Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister" Turgay AVCI
Legislative branch: unicameral - area under government control: House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats, 56 assigned to the Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots; note - only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Assembly of the Republic or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: area under government control: last held 21 May 2006 (next to be held 2011); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: last held 14 December 2003 (next to be held in 2008)
election results: area under government control: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - AKEL 31.1%, DISY 30.3%, DIKO 17.9%, EDEK 8.9%, EURO.KO 5.8%, Greens 2.0%; seats by party - AKEL (Communist) 18, DISY 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 5, EURO.KO 3, Greens 1; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Assembly of the Republic - percent of vote by party - CTP 35.8%, UBP 32.3%, Peace and Democratic Movement 13.4%, DP 12.3%; seats by party - CTP 19, UBP 18, Peace and Democratic Movement 6, DP 7; note - "TRNC" seats by party as of September 2006 - CTP 25, OP 3, UBP 13, DP 6, BDH 1, independents 2
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed jointly by the president and vice president)
note: there is also a Supreme Court in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots
Political parties and leaders: area under government control: Democratic Party or DIKO [Marios KAROYIAN]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS]; European Democracy or EURO.DI [Prodromos PRODROMOU] (evolved from For Europe which merged with New Horizons); European Party or EURO.KO [Demetris SYLLOURIS]; Fighting Democratic Movement or ADIK [Dinos MIKHAILIDIS]; Green Party of Cyprus [George PERDIKIS]; Movement for Social Democrats or EDEK [Yannakis OMIROU]; Political Movement of Hunters [Michalis PAFITANIS]; Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS]; United Democrats or EDI [Michalis PAPAPETROU]
area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Communal Liberation Party or TKP [Huseyin ANGOLEMLI]; Cyprus Socialist Party or KSP [Kazim ONGEN]; Democratic Party or DP [Serder DENKTASH]; Freedom and Reform Party or OP [Turgay AVCI]; National Unity Party or UBP [Tahsin ERTUGRULOGLU]; Nationalist Justice Party or MAP [Ata TEPE]; New Party or YP [Huseyin TURAN]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU]; Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Oguz OZEN]; Peace and Democratic Movement or BDH [Mustafa AKINCI]; Renewal Progress Party or YAP [Ertugrul HASIPOGLU]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Ferdi Sabit SOYER]; United Cyprus Party or BKP [Isset IZCAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)
International organization participation: Australia Group, C, CE, EBRD, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (associate member), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Andreas KAKOURIS
chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772, 462-0873
FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710
consulate(s) general: New York
note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot community in the US is Hilmi AKIL; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1] (202) 887-6198
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Frank C. URBANCIC, Jr.
embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, 2407 Engomi, Nicosia
mailing address: P. O. Box 24536, 1385 Nicosia
telephone: [357] (22) 393939
FAX: [357] (22) 780944
Executive branch: chief of state: President Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS (since 28 February 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot head of government: President Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS (since 28 February 2008) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and vice president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 17 and 24 February 2008 (next to be held in February 2013) election results: Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS elected president; percent of vote (first round) - Ioannis KASOULIDIS 33.5%, Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS 33.3%, Tassos PAPADOPOULOS 31.8%; (second round) Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS 53.4%, Ioannis KASOULIDIS 46.6% note: Mehmet Ali TALAT became "president" of the "TRNC", 24 April 2005, after "presidential" elections on 17 April 2005; results - Mehmet Ali TALAT 55.6%, Dervis EROGLU 22.7%; Ferdi Sabit SOYER is "TRNC prime minister" and heads the Council of Ministers (cabinet) in coalition with "Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister" Turgay AVCI
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MesajKonu: Geri: Cyprus(KIBRIS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 4:52 pm

Economy
The area of the Republic of Cyprus under government control has a market economy dominated by the service sector, which accounts for 78% of GDP. Tourism, financial services, and real estate are the most important sectors. Erratic growth rates over the past decade reflect the economy's reliance on tourism, which often fluctuates with political instability in the region and economic conditions in Western Europe. Nevertheless, the economy in the area under government control grew by an average of 3.6% per year during the period of 2000-06, well above the EU average. Cyprus joined the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM2) in May 2005 and adopted the euro as its national currency on 1 January 2008. An aggressive austerity program in the preceding years, aimed at paving the way for the euro, helped turn a soaring fiscal deficit (6.3% in 2003) into a surplus of 1.5% in 2007. As in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, water shortages are a perennial problem; a few desalination plants are now on line. After 10 years of drought, the country received substantial rainfall from 2001-04 alleviating immediate concerns. Rainfall in 2005 and 2006, however, was well below average, making water rationing a necessity in 2007.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $21.4 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $21.3 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.4% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $27,100 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2.7%
industry: 19.2%
services: 78% (2007 est.)
Labor force: 393,000 (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 8.5%
industry: 20.5%
services: 71% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate: 3.9% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 29 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 20.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget: revenues:: $9.996 billion
expenditures:: $9.304 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt: 59.6% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products: citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables; poultry, pork, lamb; dairy, cheese
Industries: tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum production, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone, and clay products
Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production: 4.52 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 4.151 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption: 57,830 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 55,970 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: NA
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: NA
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: NA
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006)
Current account balance: -$2.144 billion (2007 est.)
Exports: $1.495 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities: citrus, potatoes, pharmaceuticals, cement, and clothing
Exports - partners: Greece 21.1%, UK 14.3%, Germany 6.6% (2007)
Imports: $7.84 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, intermediate goods, machinery, transport equipment
Imports - partners: Greece 17.7%, Italy 10.2%, UK 9.6%, Germany 9.4%, Israel 6.5%, France 5.4%, China 5.3%, Netherlands 4.1% (2007)
Economic aid - donor: $25.9 million (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $6.507 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external: $26.97 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $13.36 billion (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $5.419 billion (2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $48.2 billion (2005)
Currency (code): Cypriot pound (CYP); euro (EUR) after 1 January 2008
Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds (CYP) per US dollar -: 0.4286 (2007), 0.4586 (2006), 0.4641 (2005), 0.4686 (2004), 0.5174 (2003)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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MesajKonu: Geri: Cyprus(KIBRIS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 4:52 pm

Communications
Telephones in use: area under government control: 376,000 (2007); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 86,228 (2002)
Cellular Phones in use: area under government control: 962,200 (2007); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 147,522 (2002)
Telephone system: general assessment: excellent in both area under government control and area administered by Turkish Cypriots
domestic: open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay
international: country code - 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turkey - 90); a number of submarine cables, including the SEA-ME-WE-3, combine to provide connectivity to Western Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 8 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat)
Radio broadcast stations: area under government control: AM 5, FM 76, shortwave 0 area administered by Turkish Cypriots: AM 1, FM 20, shortwave 1 (2004)
Television broadcast stations: area under government control: 8 area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 2 (plus 4 relay) (2004)
Internet country code: .cy
Internet hosts: 143,099 (2008)
Internet users: 380,000 (2007)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Cyprus(KIBRIS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 4:52 pm

Transportation
Airports: 16 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Heliports: 10 (2007)
Roadways: total: 14,630 km (area under government control: 12,280 km; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 2,350 km)
paved: area under government control: 7,979 km (includes 257 km of expressways); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 1,370 km
unpaved: area under government control: 4,301 km; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 980 km (2006)
Merchant marine: total: 858
by type: bulk carrier 295, cargo 182, chemical tanker 63, container 193, liquefied gas 10, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 24, petroleum tanker 58, refrigerated cargo 10, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 5
foreign-owned: 690 (Austria 1, Belgium 2, Canada 2, Chile 1, China 10, Cuba 1, Denmark 4, Estonia 5, Germany 189, Greece 259, Hong Kong 2, India 2, Iran 10, Ireland 3, Israel 4, Italy 7, Japan 21, South Korea 1, Latvia 1, Lebanon 1, Netherlands 22, Norway 18, Philippines 1, Poland 18, Portugal 1, Russia 50, Singapore 3, Slovenia 4, Spain 6, Sweden 2, Syria 2, Ukraine 4, UAE 9, UK 19, US 5)
registered in other countries: 256 (Antigua and Barbuda 18, Bahamas 25, Belize 1, Burma 1, Cambodia 7, Comoros 1, Georgia 1, Germany 2, Gibraltar 1, Greece 7, Liberia 63, Malta 31, Marshall Islands 37, Netherlands 8, Netherlands Antilles 21, Panama 19, Poland 1, Russia 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Samoa 1, Singapore 1, Tonga 1, Turkey 2, UK 2, unknown 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals: area under government control: Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Famagusta, Kyrenia
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MesajKonu: Geri: Cyprus(KIBRIS)   Çarş. Şub. 04, 2009 4:53 pm

Military

Military branches: Republic of Cyprus: Greek Cypriot National Guard (Ethniki Forea, EF; includes air and naval elements); northern Cyprus: Turkish Cypriot Security Force (GKK) (2007)
Military service age and obligation: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG): 18-50 years of age for compulsory military service for all Greek Cypriot males; 17 years of age for voluntary service; females are not conscripted; age of military eligibility 17 to 50; length of normal service is 25 months with a minimum of 3 months (2006)
Manpower available for military service: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG):
males age 16-49: 199,767
females age 16-49: 190,665 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG):
males age 16-49: 165,042
females age 16-49: 158,869 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Cyprus(KIBRIS)   Bugün 7:55 am

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