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 Grenada(GRENADA)

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MesajKonu: Grenada(GRENADA)   Perş. Şub. 05, 2009 6:44 pm

Carib Indians inhabited Grenada when COLUMBUS discovered the island in 1498, but it remained uncolonized for more than a century. The French settled Grenada in the 17th century, established sugar estates, and imported large numbers of African slaves. Britain took the island in 1762 and vigorously expanded sugar production. In the 19th century, cacao eventually surpassed sugar as the main export crop; in the 20th century, nutmeg became the leading export. In 1967, Britain gave Grenada autonomy over its internal affairs. Full independence was attained in 1974, making Grenada one of the smallest independent countries in the Western Hemisphere. Grenada was seized by a Marxist military council on 19 October 1983. Six days later the island was invaded by US forces and those of six other Caribbean nations, which quickly captured the ringleaders and their hundreds of Cuban advisers. Free elections were reinstituted the following year and have continued since that time. Hurricane Ivan struck Grenada in September of 2004 causing severe damage.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Grenada(GRENADA)   Perş. Şub. 05, 2009 6:44 pm

Geography
The administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada.
Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago
Geographic coordinates: 12 07 N, 61 40 W
Area: total: 344 sq km
land: 344 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Size comparison: twice the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 121 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds
Terrain: volcanic in origin with central mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Saint Catherine 840 m
Natural resources: timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors
Land use: arable land: 5.88%
permanent crops: 29.41%
other: 64.71% (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November
Current Environment Issues: NA
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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MesajKonu: Geri: Grenada(GRENADA)   Perş. Şub. 05, 2009 6:44 pm

People
Population: 90,343 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.4% (male 14,725/female 14,524)
15-64 years: 64.7% (male 30,911/female 27,502)
65 years and over: 3% (male 1,310/female 1,371) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 22.4 years
male: 22.9 years
female: 21.9 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.406% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 21.61 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 6.31 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -11.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 13.58 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.25 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 65.6 years
male: 63.74 years
female: 67.47 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.27 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Grenadian(s)
adjective: Grenadian
Ethnic groups: black 82%, mixed black and European 13%, European and East Indian 5%, and trace of Arawak/Carib Amerindian
Religions: Roman Catholic 53%, Anglican 13.8%, other Protestant 33.2%
Languages: English (official), French patois
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: NA
female: NA (2003 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Grenada(GRENADA)   Perş. Şub. 05, 2009 6:45 pm

Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Grenada
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Saint George's
geographic coordinates: 12 03 N, 61 45 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petite Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick
Independence: 7 February 1974 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 7 February (1974)
Constitution: 19 December 1973
Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Carlyle Arnold GLEAN (since 27 November 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Tillman THOMAS (since 9 July 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (13 seats, 10 appointed by the government and 3 by the leader of the opposition) and the House of Representatives (15 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 8 July 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDC 11, NNP 4
Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of a court of Appeal and a High Court of Justice (a High Court judge is assigned to and resides in Grenada)
Political parties and leaders: Grenada United Labor Party or GULP [Gloria Payne BANFIELD]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Tillman THOMAS]; New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Committee for Human Rights in Grenada or CHRG; New Jewel Movement Support Group; The British Grenada Friendship Society; The New Jewel 19 Committee
International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Denis G. ANTOINE
chancery: 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2561
FAX: [1] (202) 265-2468
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Grenada
embassy: Lance-aux-Epines Stretch, Saint George's
mailing address: P. O. Box 54, Saint George's
telephone: [1] (473) 444-1173 through 1177
FAX: [1] (473) 444-4820
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Carlyle Arnold GLEAN (since 27 November 2008) head of government: Prime Minister Tillman THOMAS (since 9 July 2008) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
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MesajKonu: Geri: Grenada(GRENADA)   Perş. Şub. 05, 2009 6:45 pm

Economy
Grenada relies on tourism as its main source of foreign exchange, especially since the construction of an international airport in 1985. Strong performances in construction and manufacturing, together with the development of an offshore financial industry, have also contributed to growth in national output. Grenada has rebounded from the devastating effects of Hurricanes Ivan (2004) and Emily (2005), but is now saddled with the debt burden from the rebuilding process. The agricultural sector, particularly nutmeg and cocoa cultivation, has gradually recovered, and the tourism sector has seen substantial increases in foreign direct investment as the regional share of the tourism market increases.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.108 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $590 million (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.1% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $10,500 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5.4%
industry: 18%
services: 76.6% (2003)
Labor force: 42,300 (1996)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 24%
industry: 14%
services: 62% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 12.5% (2000)
Population below poverty line: 32% (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (2007 est.)
Budget: revenues: $85.8 million
expenditures: $102.1 million (1997)
Agriculture - products: bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, citrus, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, vegetables
Industries: food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction
Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (1997 est.)
Electricity - production: 167.2 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 144.2 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 2,043 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 1,844 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: -$138 million (2007 est.)
Exports: $38 million (2006)
Exports - commodities: bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace
Exports - partners: Jamaica 92.8%, Saint Lucia 1.3%, US 1.2% (2007)
Imports: $343 million (2006)
Imports - commodities: food, manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel
Imports - partners: Trinidad and Tobago 36.5%, US 23.3%, Italy 4.1% (2007)
Debt - external: $347 million (2004)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Currency (code): East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2007), 2.7 (2006), 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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MesajKonu: Geri: Grenada(GRENADA)   Perş. Şub. 05, 2009 6:45 pm

Communications
Telephones in use: 27,700 (2006)
Cellular Phones in use: 46,200 (2006)
Telephone system: general assessment: automatic, islandwide telephone system
domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links
international: country code - 1-473; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad
Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)
Internet country code: .gd
Internet hosts: 9 (2008)
Internet users: 23,000 (2007)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Grenada(GRENADA)   Perş. Şub. 05, 2009 6:45 pm

Transportation
Airports: 3 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Roadways: total: 1,127 km
paved: 687 km
unpaved: 440 km (2000)
Ports and terminals: Saint George's
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MesajKonu: Geri: Grenada(GRENADA)   Perş. Şub. 05, 2009 6:46 pm

Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Royal Grenada Police Force (includes Coast Guard) (2007)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 27,309 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 20,249 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Grenada(GRENADA)   Bugün 8:31 am

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