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 Guatemala(GUATEMALA)

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MesajKonu: Guatemala(GUATEMALA)   Perş. Mart 05, 2009 7:40 pm

Background
The Mayan civilization flourished in Guatemala and surrounding regions during the first millennium A.D. After almost three centuries as a Spanish colony, Guatemala won its independence in 1821. During the second half of the 20th century, it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments, as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996, the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the conflict, which had left more than 100,000 people dead and had created, by some estimates, some 1 million refugees.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guatemala(GUATEMALA)   Perş. Mart 05, 2009 7:40 pm

Geography
No natural harbors on west coast.
Location: Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Mexico, and bordering the Gulf of Honduras (Caribbean Sea) between Honduras and Belize
Geographic coordinates: 15 30 N, 90 15 W
Area: total: 108,890 sq km
land: 108,430 sq km
water: 460 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than Tennessee

Land Boundaries: total: 1,687 km
border countries: Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km, Honduras 256 km, Mexico 962 km
Coastline: 400 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Volcan Tajumulco 4,211 m
Natural resources: petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 13.22%
permanent crops: 5.6%
other: 81.18% (2005)
Irrigated land: 1,300 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: numerous volcanoes in mountains, with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms
Current Environment Issues: deforestation in the Peten rainforest; soil erosion; water pollution
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guatemala(GUATEMALA)   Perş. Mart 05, 2009 7:40 pm

People
Population: 13,002,206 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.1% (male 2,653,915/female 2,565,841)
15-64 years: 56.2% (male 3,539,874/female 3,762,471)
65 years and over: 3.7% (male 222,303/female 257,802) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 19.2 years
male: 18.6 years
female: 19.7 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.11% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 28.55 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 5.19 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 28.79 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 31.21 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.99 years
male: 68.22 years
female: 71.86 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.59 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 78,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 5,800 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Guatemalan(s)
adjective: Guatemalan
Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) and European 59.4%, K'iche 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q'eqchi 6.3%, other Mayan 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%, other 0.1% (2001 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous Mayan beliefs
Languages: Spanish 60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 69.1%
male: 75.4%
female: 63.3% (2002 census)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guatemala(GUATEMALA)   Perş. Mart 05, 2009 7:40 pm

Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Guatemala
conventional short form: Guatemala
local long form: Republica de Guatemala
local short form: Guatemala
Government type: constitutional democratic republic
Capital: name: Guatemala
geographic coordinates: 14 37 N, 90 31 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in April; ends last Friday in September; note - there is no DST planned for 2007-2009
Administrative divisions: 22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa
Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution: 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986; note - suspended 25 May 1993 by former President Jorge SERRANO; reinstated 5 June 1993 following ouster of president; amended November 1993
Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note - active duty members of the armed forces may not vote and are restricted to their barracks on election day
Executive branch: chief of state: President Alvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 January 2008); Vice President Jose Rafael ESPADA (since 14 January 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Alvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 January 2008); Vice President Jose Rafael ESPADA (since 14 January 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 9 September 2007; runoff held 4 November 2007 (next to be held September 2011)
election results: Alvaro COLOM Caballeros elected president; percent of vote - Alvaro COLOM Caballeros 52.8%, Otto PEREZ Molina 47.2%
Legislative branch: unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de la Republica (158 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 9 September 2007 (next to be held in September 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - UNE 30.4%, GANA 23.4%, PP 18.9%, FRG 9.5%, PU 5.1%, other 12.7%; seats by party - UNE 48, GANA 37, PP 30, FRG 15, PU 8, CASA 5, EG 4, PAN 4, UCN 4, URNG 2, UD 1
Judicial branch: Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitucionalidad is Guatemala's highest court (five judges are elected for concurrent five-year terms); Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (13 members serve concurrent five-year terms and elect a president of the Court each year from among their number; the president of the Supreme Court of Justice also supervises trial judges around the country, who are named to five-year terms)
Political parties and leaders: Center of Social Action or CASA [Eduardo SUGER]; Democracy Front or FRENTE [Alfonso CABRERA]; Democratic Union or UD [Manuel CONDE Orellana]; Encounter for Guatemala or EG [Nineth MONTENGRO]; Grand National Alliance or GANA [Alfredo VILLA]; Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG [Hector NUILA]; Guatemalan Republican Front or FRG [Efrain RIOS Montt]; National Advancement Party or PAN [Juan Guillermo GUTIERREZ]; National Unity for Hope or UNE [Juan Jose ALFARO Lemus]; Nationalist Change Union or UCN [Mario ESTRADA]; Patriot Party or PP [Ret. Gen. Otto PEREZ Molina]; Unionista Party or PU [Fritz GARCIA-GALLONT]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO; Alliance Against Impunity or AAI; Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC; Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF; Mutual Support Group or GAM
International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco VILLAGRAN de Leon
chancery: 2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 745-4952
FAX: [1] (202) 745-1908
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Providence, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen G. MCFARLAND
embassy: 7-01 Avenida Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City
mailing address: APO AA 34024
telephone: [502] 2326-4000
FAX: [502] 2326-4654
Executive branch: chief of state: President Alvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 January 2008); Vice President Jose Rafael ESPADA (since 14 January 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Alvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 January 2008); Vice President Jose Rafael ESPADA (since 14 January 2008) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 9 September 2007; runoff held 4 November 2007 (next to be held September 2011) election results: Alvaro COLOM Caballeros elected president; percent of vote - Alvaro COLOM Caballeros 52.8%, Otto PEREZ Molina 47.2%
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guatemala(GUATEMALA)   Perş. Mart 05, 2009 7:41 pm

Economy
Guatemala is the most populous of the Central American countries with a GDP per capita roughly one-half that of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. The agricultural sector accounts for about one-tenth of GDP, two-fifths of exports, and half of the labor force. Coffee, sugar, and bananas are the main products, with sugar exports benefiting from increased global demand for ethanol. The 1996 signing of peace accords, which ended 36 years of civil war, removed a major obstacle to foreign investment, and Guatemala since then has pursued important reforms and macroeconomic stabilization. The Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) entered into force in July 2006 and has since spurred increased investment in the export sector, but concerns over security, the lack of skilled workers and poor infrastructure continued to hamper foreign participation. The distribution of income remains highly unequal with more than half of the population below the national poverty line. Other ongoing challenges include increasing government revenues, negotiating further assistance from international donors, curtailing drug trafficking and rampant crime, and narrowing the trade deficit. Given Guatemala's large expatriate community in the United States, it is the top remittance recipient in Central America, with inflows serving as a primary source of foreign income equivalent to nearly two-thirds of exports. Economic growth will slow in 2009 as export demand from US and other Central American markets drop and foreign investment slows amid the global slowdown.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $70.19 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $36.28 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.9% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,400 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 13.2%
industry: 25.8%
services: 61% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 4.054 million (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 50%
industry: 15%
services: 35% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 3.2% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line: 56.2% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.9%
highest 10%: 43.4% (2002)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 55.1 (2007)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.2% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 20.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $4.944 billion
expenditures: $5.647 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt: 23.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 7.643 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 6.617 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 131.9 million kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 8.11 million kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 15,820 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 74,230 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 15,560 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - imports: 72,960 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - proved reserves: 83.07 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.96 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: -$3.316 billion (2008 est.)
Exports: $8.028 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, sugar, petroleum, apparel, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom
Exports - partners: US 42.2%, El Salvador 9.6%, Honduras 8.6%, Mexico 6.5%, Costa Rica 4.5% (2007)
Imports: $15.42 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, grain, fertilizers, electricity
Imports - partners: US 34.9%, Mexico 9.9%, China 6.8%, El Salvador 4.6%, Costa Rica 4.1% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $4.229 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $6.337 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Currency (code): quetzal (GTQ), US dollar (USD), others allowed
Exchange rates: quetzales (GTQ) per US dollar - 7.5895 (2008 est.), 7.6833 (2007), 7.6026 (2006), 7.6339 (2005), 7.9465 (2004)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guatemala(GUATEMALA)   Perş. Mart 05, 2009 7:41 pm

Communications
Telephones in use: 1.355 million (2006)
Cellular Phones in use: 10.15 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala
domestic: state-owned telecommunications company privatized in the late 1990s opening the way for competition; fixed-line teledensity 11 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 502; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the SAM-1 fiber optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 130, FM 487, shortwave 15 (2000)
Television broadcast stations: 26 (plus 27 repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code: .gt
Internet hosts: 124,095 (2008)
Internet users: 1.32 million (2006)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guatemala(GUATEMALA)   Perş. Mart 05, 2009 7:41 pm

Transportation
Airports: 402 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 390
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 82
under 914 m: 301 (2007)
Pipelines: oil 480 km (2007)
Railways: total: 886 km
narrow gauge: 886 km 0.914-m gauge (2006)
Roadways: total: 14,095 km
paved: 4,863 km (includes 75 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,232 km (2000)
Waterways: 990 km
note: 260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during high-water season (2007)
Ports and terminals: Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guatemala(GUATEMALA)   Perş. Mart 05, 2009 7:41 pm

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force
Military service age and obligation: all male citizens between the ages of 18 and 50 are liable for military service; conscript service obligation varies from 12 to 24 months; women can serve as officers (2007)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,861,696
females age 16-49: 3,062,967 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 2,310,272
females age 16-49: 2,622,450 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guatemala(GUATEMALA)   Bugün 4:21 pm

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