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 Guyana(GUANA-GUYANA)

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MesajKonu: Guyana(GUANA-GUYANA)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 12:12 pm

Originally a Dutch colony in the 17th century, by 1815 Guyana had become a British possession. The abolition of slavery led to black settlement of urban areas and the importation of indentured servants from India to work the sugar plantations. This ethnocultural divide has persisted and has led to turbulent politics. Guyana achieved independence from the UK in 1966, and since then it has been ruled mostly by socialist-oriented governments. In 1992, Cheddi JAGAN was elected president in what is considered the country's first free and fair election since independence. After his death five years later, his wife, Janet JAGAN, became president but resigned in 1999 due to poor health. Her successor, Bharrat JAGDEO, was reelected in 2001 and again in 2006.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guyana(GUANA-GUYANA)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 12:12 pm

Geography
The third-smallest country in South America after Suriname and Uruguay; substantial portions of its western and eastern territories are claimed by Venezuela and Suriname respectively.
Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Suriname and Venezuela
Geographic coordinates: 5 00 N, 59 00 W
Area: total: 214,970 sq km
land: 196,850 sq km
water: 18,120 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than Idaho

Land Boundaries: total: 2,949 km
border countries: Brazil 1,606 km, Suriname 600 km, Venezuela 743 km
Coastline: 459 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to August, November to January)
Terrain: mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Roraima 2,835 m
Natural resources: bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish
Land use: arable land: 2.23%
permanent crops: 0.14%
other: 97.63% (2005)
Irrigated land: 1,500 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat during rainy seasons
Current Environment Issues: water pollution from sewage and agricultural and industrial chemicals; deforestation
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guyana(GUANA-GUYANA)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 12:13 pm

People
Population: 770,794 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.9% (male 101,712/female 97,907)
15-64 years: 68.7% (male 267,239/female 262,188)
65 years and over: 5.4% (male 17,610/female 24,138) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 28.2 years
male: 27.7 years
female: 28.7 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.211% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 17.85 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 8.29 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -7.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 30.43 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 33.87 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.43 years
male: 63.81 years
female: 69.18 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.03 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.5% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 11,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,100 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Guyanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Guyanese
Ethnic groups: East Indian 43.5%, black (African) 30.2%, mixed 16.7%, Amerindian 9.1%, other 0.5% (2002 census)
Religions: Hindu 28.4%, Pentecostal 16.9%, Roman Catholic 8.1%, Anglican 6.9%, Seventh Day Adventist 5%, Methodist 1.7%, Jehovah Witness 1.1%, other Christian 17.7%, Muslim 7.2%, other 4.3%, none 4.3% (2002 census)
Languages: English, Amerindian dialects, Creole, Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Urdu
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.5% (2003 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guyana(GUANA-GUYANA)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 12:13 pm

Government
Country name: conventional long form: Cooperative Republic of Guyana
conventional short form: Guyana
former: British Guiana
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Georgetown
geographic coordinates: 6 48 N, 58 10 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara-Mahaica, East Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice, Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo
Independence: 26 May 1966 (from UK)
National holiday: Republic Day, 23 February (1970)
Constitution: 6 October 1980
Legal system: based on English common law with certain admixtures of Roman-Dutch law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Bharrat JAGDEO (since 11 August 1999); note - assumed presidency after resignation of President Janet JAGAN and was reelected in 2001, and again in 2006
head of government: Prime Minister Samuel HINDS (since October 1992, except for a period as chief of state after the death of President Cheddi JAGAN on 6 March 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible to the legislature
elections: president elected by popular vote as leader of a party list in parliamentary elections, which must be held at least every five years (no term limits); elections last held 28 August 2006 (next to be held by August 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: President Bharrat JAGDEO reelected; percent of vote 54.6%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (65 seats; members elected by popular vote, also not more than 4 non-elected non-voting ministers and 2 non-elected non-voting parliamentary secretaries appointed by the president; to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 28 August 2006 (next to be held by August 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - PPP/C 54.6%, PNC/R 34%, AFC 8.1%, other 3.3%; seats by party - PPP/C 36, PNC/R 22, AFC 5, other 2
Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature, consisting of the High Court and the Judicial Court of Appeal, with right of final appeal to the Caribbean Court of Justice
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Change or AFC [Raphael TROTMAN and Khemraj RAMJATTAN]; Guyana Action Party or GAP [Paul HARDY]; Justice for All Party [C.N. SHARMA]; People's National Congress/Reform or PNC/R [Robert Herman Orlando CORBIN]; People's Progressive Party/Civic or PPP/C [Bharrat JAGDEO]; Rise, Organize, and Rebuild or ROAR [Ravi DEV]; The United Force or TUF [Manzoor NADIR]; The Unity Party [Joey JAGAN]; Vision Guyana [Peter RAMSAROOP]; Working People's Alliance or WPA [Rupert ROOPNARAINE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Amerindian People's Association; Guyana Bar Association; Guyana Citizens Initiative; Guyana Human Rights Association; Guyana Public Service Union or GPSU; Private Sector Commission; Trades Union Congress
International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIC, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Bayney KARRAN
chancery: 2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-6900
FAX: [1] (202) 232-1297
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John Melvin JONES
embassy: US Embassy, 100 Young and Duke Streets, Kingston, Georgetown
mailing address: P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown; US Embassy, 3170 Georgetown Place, Washington DC 20521-3170
telephone: [592] 225-4900 through 4909
FAX: [592] 225-8497
Executive branch: chief of state: President Bharrat JAGDEO (since 11 August 1999); note - assumed presidency after resignation of President Janet JAGAN and was reelected in 2001, and again in 2006 head of government: Prime Minister Samuel HINDS (since October 1992, except for a period as chief of state after the death of President Cheddi JAGAN on 6 March 1997) cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible to the legislature elections: president elected by popular vote as leader of a party list in parliamentary elections, which must be held at least every five years (no term limits); elections last held 28 August 2006 (next to be held by August 2011); prime minister appointed by the president election results: President Bharrat JAGDEO reelected; percent of vote 54.6%
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guyana(GUANA-GUYANA)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 12:13 pm

Economy
The Guyanese economy exhibited moderate economic growth in recent years and is based largely on agriculture and extractive industries. The economy is heavily dependent upon the export of six commodities - sugar, gold, bauxite, shrimp, timber, and rice - which represent nearly 60% of the country's GDP and are highly susceptible to adverse weather conditions and fluctuations in commodity prices. Economic recovery since the 2005 flood-related contraction has been buoyed by increases in remittances and foreign direct investment in the sugar and rice industries as well as the mining sector. The bauxite mining sector should benefit in the near term from restructuring and partial privatization, and the state-owned sugar industry will conduct efficiency increasing modernizations. Export earnings from agriculture and mining have remained flat as rising commodity prices have offset declining production, while the import bill has risen, driven by higher energy costs. Chronic problems include a shortage of skilled labor and a deficient infrastructure. The government is juggling a sizable external debt against the urgent need for expanded public investment. In March 2007, the Inter-American Development Bank, Guyana's principal donor, canceled Guyana's nearly $470 million debt, equivalent to nearly 48% of GDP, which along with other Highly Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) debt forgiveness brought the debt-to-GDP ratio down from 183% in 2006 to 120% in 2007. Guyana became heavily indebted as a result of the inward-looking, state-led development model pursued in the 1970s and 1980s. Guyana's entrance into the Caricom Single Market and Economy (CSME) in January 2006 has broadened the country's export market, primarily in the raw materials sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $3.082 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.134 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $4,000 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 31.9%
industry: 21%
services: 47.2% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 418,000 (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate: 9.1% (2000)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.3%
highest 10%: 33.8% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 43.2 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.3% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 40.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $463.7 million
expenditures: $536 million (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products: sugarcane, rice, shrimp, fish, edible oils; beef, pork, poultry
Industries: bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, textiles, gold mining
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 901 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 747 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 10,440 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 10,960 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: -$220 million (2008 est.)
Exports: $779 million f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: sugar, gold, bauxite, alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses, rum, timber
Exports - partners: Canada 18.7%, US 16.5%, UK 9.1%, Portugal 7.6%, Trinidad and Tobago 5.2%, France 4.7%, Netherlands 4.6%, Jamaica 4% (2007)
Imports: $1.162 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food
Imports - partners: Trinidad and Tobago 26.2%, US 20.5%, Cuba 7.2%, China 7.1%, UK 5.4% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $380 million (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $1.2 billion (2002)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $262.4 million (31 December 2007)
Currency (code): Guyanese dollar (GYD)
Exchange rates: Guyanese dollars (GYD) per US dollar - 203.86 (2008 est.), 201.89 (2007), 200.28 (2006), 200.79 (2005), 198.31 (2004)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guyana(GUANA-GUYANA)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 12:13 pm

Communications
Telephones in use: 110,100 (2005)
Cellular Phones in use: 281,400 (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: fair system for long-distance service
domestic: microwave radio relay network for trunk lines; fixed-line teledensity is about 15 per 100 persons; many areas still lack fixed-line telephone services; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 37 per 100 persons in 2005
international: country code - 592; tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 3, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (1 public station; 2 private stations which relay US satellite services) (1997)
Internet country code: .gy
Internet hosts: 6,218 (2008)
Internet users: 190,000 (2007)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guyana(GUANA-GUYANA)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 12:14 pm

Transportation
Airports: 93 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
under 914 m: 6 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 84
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 69 (2007)
Roadways: total: 7,970 km
paved: 590 km
unpaved: 7,380 km (2000)
Waterways: 330 km
note: Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100 km, and 80 km respectively (2008)
Merchant marine: total: 8
by type: cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1
registered in other countries: 3 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, unknown 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Georgetown
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guyana(GUANA-GUYANA)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 12:14 pm

Military

Military branches: Guyana Defense Force: Army (includes Coast Guard, Air Corps) (2007)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 220,797 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 150,623 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Guyana(GUANA-GUYANA)   Bugün 4:20 pm

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