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     Kiribati(KİRİBATİ)

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    MesajKonu: Kiribati(KİRİBATİ)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 1:28 pm

    The Gilbert Islands became a British protectorate in 1892 and a colony in 1915; they were captured by the Japanese in the Pacific War in 1941. The islands of Makin and Tarawa were the sites of major US amphibious victories over entrenched Japanese garrisons in 1943. The Gilbert Islands were granted self-rule by the UK in 1971 and complete independence in 1979 under the new name of Kiribati. The US relinquished all claims to the sparsely inhabited Phoenix and Line Island groups in a 1979 treaty of friendship with Kiribati.
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Kiribati(KİRİBATİ)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 1:28 pm

    Geography
    21 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia, and Nauru.
    Location: Oceania, group of 33 coral atolls in the Pacific Ocean, straddling the Equator; the capital Tarawa is about half way between Hawaii and Australia; note - on 1 January 1995, Kiribati proclaimed that all of its territory lies in the same time zone as its Gilbert Islands group (UTC +12) even though the Phoenix Islands and the Line Islands under its jurisdiction lie on the other side of the International Date Line
    Geographic coordinates: 1 25 N, 173 00 E
    Area: total: 811 sq km
    land: 811 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    note: includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands
    Size comparison: four times the size of Washington, DC

    Land Boundaries: 0 km
    Coastline: 1,143 km
    Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    Climate: tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds
    Terrain: mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs
    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: unnamed location on Banaba 81 m
    Natural resources: phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)
    Land use: arable land: 2.74%
    permanent crops: 47.95%
    other: 49.31% (2005)
    Irrigated land: NA
    Natural hazards: typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; occasional tornadoes; low level of some of the islands make them sensitive to changes in sea level
    Current Environment Issues: heavy pollution in lagoon of south Tarawa atoll due to heavy migration mixed with traditional practices such as lagoon latrines and open-pit dumping; ground water at risk
    International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Kiribati(KİRİBATİ)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 1:28 pm

    People
    Population: 110,356 (July 2008 est.)
    Age structure: 0-14 years: 37.9% (male 21,180/female 20,604)
    15-64 years: 58.7% (male 31,993/female 32,797)
    65 years and over: 3.4% (male 1,606/female 2,176) (2008 est.)
    Median age: total: 20.6 years
    male: 20.1 years
    female: 21.1 years (2008 est.)
    Population growth rate: 2.235% (2008 est.)
    Birth rate: 30.31 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Death rate: 7.97 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Net migration rate: NA (2008 est.)
    Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
    Infant mortality rate: total: 44.69 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 49.61 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 39.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
    Life expectancy at birth: total population: 62.85 years
    male: 59.79 years
    female: 66.06 years (2008 est.)
    Total fertility rate: 4.08 children born/woman (2008 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
    HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
    Nationality: noun: I-Kiribati (singular and plural)
    adjective: I-Kiribati
    Ethnic groups: Micronesian 98.8%, other 1.2% (2000 census)
    Religions: Roman Catholic 52%, Protestant (Congregational) 40%, other (includes Seventh-Day Adventist, Muslim, Baha'i, Latter-day Saints, Church of God) 8% (1999)
    Languages: I-Kiribati, English (official)
    Literacy: NA
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Kiribati(KİRİBATİ)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 1:28 pm

    Government
    Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Kiribati
    conventional short form: Kiribati
    local long form: Republic of Kiribati
    local short form: Kiribati
    note: pronounced keer-ree-bahss
    former: Gilbert Islands
    Government type: republic
    Capital: name: Tarawa
    geographic coordinates: 1 19 N, 172 58 E
    time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions: 3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands; note - in addition, there are 6 districts (Banaba, Central Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) and 21 island councils - one for each of the inhabited islands (Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kanton, Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina)
    Independence: 12 July 1979 (from UK)
    National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1979)
    Constitution: 12 July 1979
    Legal system: NA
    Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch: chief of state: President Anote TONG (since 10 July 2003); Vice President Teima ONORIO; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Anote TONG (since 10 July 2003); Vice President Teima ONORIO
    cabinet: 12-member cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the House of Parliament
    elections: the House of Parliament chooses the presidential candidates from among its members and then those candidates compete in a general election; president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for two more terms); election last held 17 October 2007 (next to be held in 2011); vice president appointed by the president
    election results: Anote TONG 63.7%, Nabuti MWEMWENIKARAWA 32.9%
    Legislative branch: unicameral House of Parliament or Maneaba Ni Maungatabu (46 seats; 44 members elected by popular vote, 1 ex officio member - the attorney general, 1 nominated by the Rabi Council of Leaders (representing Banaba Island); to serve four-year terms)
    elections: legislative elections were held in two rounds - the first round on 22 August 2007 and the second round on 30 August 2007 (next to be held in 2011)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA, other 2 (includes attorney general)
    Judicial branch: Court of Appeal; High Court; 26 Magistrates' courts; judges at all levels are appointed by the president
    Political parties and leaders: Boutokaan Te Koaua Party or BTK [Taberannang TIMEON]; Maneaban Te Mauri Party or MTM [Teburoro TITO]; Maurin Kiribati Pati or MKP; National Progressive Party or NPP [Dr. Harry TONG]
    note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures
    Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
    International organization participation: ACP, ADB, C, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, ITUC, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO
    Diplomatic representation in the US: Kiribati does not have an embassy in the US; there is an honorary consulate in Honolulu
    Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Kiribati; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Kiribati
    Executive branch: chief of state: President Anote TONG (since 10 July 2003); Vice President Teima ONORIO; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Anote TONG (since 10 July 2003); Vice President Teima ONORIO cabinet: 12-member cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the House of Parliament elections: the House of Parliament chooses the presidential candidates from among its members and then those candidates compete in a general election; president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for two more terms); election last held 17 October 2007 (next to be held in 2011); vice president appointed by the president election results: Anote TONG 63.7%, Nabuti MWEMWENIKARAWA 32.9%
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Kiribati(KİRİBATİ)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 1:29 pm

    Economy
    A remote country of 33 scattered coral atolls, Kiribati has few natural resources and is one of the least developed Pacific Islands. Commercially viable phosphate deposits were exhausted at the time of independence from the UK in 1979. Copra and fish now represent the bulk of production and exports. The economy has fluctuated widely in recent years. Economic development is constrained by a shortage of skilled workers, weak infrastructure, and remoteness from international markets. Tourism provides more than one-fifth of GDP. Private sector initiatives and a financial sector are in the early stages of development. Foreign financial aid from the EU, UK, US, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Candad, UN agencies, and Taiwan accounts for 20-25% of GDP. Remittances from seamen on merchant ships abroad account for more than $5 million each year. Kiribati receives around $15 million annually for the government budget from an Australian trust fund.
    GDP (purchasing power parity): $412.5 million (2008 est.)
    GDP (official exchange rate): $71 million (2008 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate: 3.7% (2008 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,700 (2008 est.)
    GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8.9%
    industry: 24.2%
    services: 66.8% (2004)
    Labor force: 7,870 economically active, not including subsistence farmers (2001 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 2.7%
    industry: 32%
    services: 65.3% (2000)
    Unemployment rate: 2% official rate; underemployment 70% (1992 est.)
    Population below poverty line: NA%
    Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.2% (2007 est.)
    Budget: revenues: $55.52 million
    expenditures: $59.71 million (FY05)
    Agriculture - products:
    Industries: fishing, handicrafts
    Industrial production growth rate:
    Electricity - production: 10 million kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - consumption: 9.3 million kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
    Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - consumption: 232.4 bbl/day (2006 est.)
    Oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2005)
    Oil - imports: 259.1 bbl/day (2005)
    Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
    Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
    Current account balance: -$21 million (2007 est.)
    Exports: $17 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
    Exports - commodities: copra 62%, coconuts, seaweed, fish
    Imports: $62 million c.i.f. (2004 est.)
    Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, miscellaneous manufactured goods, fuel
    Debt - external: $10 million (1999 est.)
    Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
    Currency (code): Australian dollar (AUD)
    Exchange rates: Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar - 1.2059 (2008 est.), 1.2137 (2007), 1.3285 (2006), 1.3095 (2005), 1.3598 (2004)
    Fiscal year: NA
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Kiribati(KİRİBATİ)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 1:29 pm

    Communications
    Telephones in use: 4,500 (2002)
    Cellular Phones in use: 700 (2005)
    Telephone system: general assessment: generally good quality national and international service
    domestic: wire line service available on Tarawa and Kiritimati (Christmas Island); connections to outer islands by HF/VHF radiotelephone; wireless service available in Tarawa since 1999
    international: country code - 686; Kiribati is being linked to the Pacific Ocean Cooperative Telecommunications Network, which should improve telephone service; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
    Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1 (may be inactive) (2002)
    Television broadcast stations: 1 (possibly inactive) (2002)
    Internet country code: .ki
    Internet hosts: 9 (2008)
    Internet users: 2,000 (2007)
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Kiribati(KİRİBATİ)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 1:29 pm

    Transportation
    Airports: 19 (2007)
    Airports (paved runways): total: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2007)
    Airports (unpaved runways): total: 15
    914 to 1,523 m: 11
    under 914 m: 4 (2007)
    Roadways: total: 670 km (2000)
    Waterways: 5 km (small network of canals in Line Islands) (2007)
    Merchant marine: total: 43
    by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 18, chemical tanker 3, petroleum tanker 6, refrigerated cargo 14
    foreign-owned: 31 (China 15, Hong Kong 4, South Korea 2, Singapore 4, Taiwan 5, Turkey 1) (2008)
    Ports and terminals: Betio
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Kiribati(KİRİBATİ)   Paz Mart 29, 2009 1:29 pm

    Military
    Kiribati does not have military forces; defense assistance is provided by Australia and NZ
    Military branches: no regular military forces (constitutionally prohibited); Police Force (2008)
    Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 26,377 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 17,577 (2008 est.)
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Kiribati(KİRİBATİ)   Bugün 5:56 pm

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