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 Kuwait(Kuveyt)

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MesajKonu: Kuwait(Kuveyt)   Salı Mart 31, 2009 7:46 pm

Britain oversaw foreign relations and defense for the ruling Kuwaiti AL-SABAH dynasty from 1899 until independence in 1961. Kuwait was attacked and overrun by Iraq on 2 August 1990. Following several weeks of aerial bombardment, a US-led, UN coalition began a ground assault on 23 February 1991 that liberated Kuwait in four days. Kuwait spent more than $5 billion to repair oil infrastructure damaged during 1990-91. The AL-SABAH family has ruled since returning to power in 1991 and reestablished an elected legislature that in recent years has become increasingly assertive.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Kuwait(Kuveyt)   Salı Mart 31, 2009 7:46 pm

Geography
Strategic location at head of Persian Gulf.
Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates: 29 30 N, 45 45 E
Area: total: 17,820 sq km
land: 17,820 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land Boundaries: total: 462 km
border countries: Iraq 240 km, Saudi Arabia 222 km
Coastline: 499 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate: dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters
Terrain: flat to slightly undulating desert plain
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 306 m
Natural resources: petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas
Land use: arable land: 0.84%
permanent crops: 0.17%
other: 98.99% (2005)
Irrigated land: 130 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: sudden cloudbursts are common from October to April and bring heavy rain, which can damage roads and houses; sandstorms and dust storms occur throughout the year but are most common between March and August
Current Environment Issues: limited natural fresh water resources; some of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities provide much of the water; air and water pollution; desertification
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping
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MesajKonu: Geri: Kuwait(Kuveyt)   Salı Mart 31, 2009 7:46 pm

People
Population: 2,596,799 note: includes 1,291,354 non-nationals (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.6% (male 351,057/female 338,634)
15-64 years: 70.6% (male 1,172,460/female 659,927)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 46,770/female 27,951) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 26.1 years
male: 28 years
female: 22.6 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.591% note: this rate reflects a return to pre-Gulf crisis immigration of expatriates (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 21.9 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 2.37 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: 16.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.67 male(s)/female
total population: 1.53 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 9.22 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.53 years
male: 76.38 years
female: 78.73 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.81 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.12% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Kuwaiti(s)
adjective: Kuwaiti
Ethnic groups: Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian 4%, other 7%
Religions: Muslim 85% (Sunni 70%, Shia 30%), other (includes Christian, Hindu, Parsi) 15%
Languages: Arabic (official), English widely spoken
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.3%
male: 94.4%
female: 91% (2005 census)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Kuwait(Kuveyt)   Salı Mart 31, 2009 7:46 pm

Government
Country name: conventional long form: State of Kuwait
conventional short form: Kuwait
local long form: Dawlat al Kuwayt
local short form: Al Kuwayt
Government type: constitutional emirate
Capital: name: Kuwait
geographic coordinates: 29 22 N, 47 58 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 6 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Ahmadi, Al 'Asimah, Al Farwaniyah, Al Jahra', Hawalli, Mubarak al Kabir
Independence: 19 June 1961 (from UK)
National holiday: National Day, 25 February (1950)
Constitution: approved and promulgated 11 November 1962
Legal system: civil law system with Islamic law significant in personal matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal (adult); note - males in the military or police are not allowed to vote; adult females were allowed to vote as of 16 May 2005; all voters must have been citizens for 20 years
Executive branch: chief of state: Amir SABAH al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah (since 29 January 2006); Crown Prince NAWAF al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah
head of government: Prime Minister (acting) NASIR al-MUHAMMAD al-Ahmad al-Sabah (since 3 April 2007); First Deputy Prime Minister (acting) JABIR MUBAREK al-Hamad al-Sabah (since 9 February 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers (acting) MUHAMMAD al-Sabah al-Salim al-Sabah (since 9 February 2006) and Faysal al-HAJJI (since 5 April 2007); note - the Amir accepted the resignation of the prime minister and cabinet on 1 December 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister and approved by the Amir
elections: none; the amir is hereditary; the amir appoints the prime minister and deputy prime ministers
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Umma (50 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; all cabinet ministers are also ex officio voting members of the National Assembly)
elections: last held 17 May 2008 (next election to be held in 2012)
election results: percent of vote by bloc - NA; oppositionists hold a slight majority, but are divided among small coalitions of liberals, nationalists, Islamists, and a large number of unaffiliated tribal members
Judicial branch: High Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders: none; formation of political parties is in practice illegal but is not forbidden by law
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: Islamists; merchants; political groups; secular liberals and pro-governmental deputies; Shia activists; tribal groups
International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB (nonregional members), AFESD, AMF, BDEAC, CAEU, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador SALIM al-Abdallah al-Jabir al-Sabah
chancery: 2940 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-0702
FAX: [1] (202) 966-0517
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah K. JONES
embassy: Bayan 36302, Block 13, Al-Masjed Al-Aqsa Street (near the Bayan palace), Kuwait City
mailing address: P. O. Box 77 Safat 13001 Kuwait; or PSC 1280 APO AE 09880-9000
telephone: [965] 259-1001
FAX: [965] 538-0282
Executive branch: chief of state: Amir SABAH al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah (since 29 January 2006); Crown Prince NAWAF al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah head of government: Prime Minister (acting) NASIR al-MUHAMMAD al-Ahmad al-Sabah (since 3 April 2007); First Deputy Prime Minister (acting) JABIR MUBAREK al-Hamad al-Sabah (since 9 February 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers (acting) MUHAMMAD al-Sabah al-Salim al-Sabah (since 9 February 2006) and Faysal al-HAJJI (since 5 April 2007); note - the Amir accepted the resignation of the prime minister and cabinet on 1 December 2008) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister and approved by the Amir elections: none; the amir is hereditary; the amir appoints the prime minister and deputy prime ministers
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MesajKonu: Geri: Kuwait(Kuveyt)   Salı Mart 31, 2009 7:47 pm

Economy
Kuwait is a small, rich, relatively open economy with self-reported crude oil reserves of about 104 billion barrels - 8% of world reserves. Petroleum accounts for nearly half of GDP, 95% of export revenues, and 80% of government income. Kuwait experienced rapid economic growth over the last several years on the back of high oil prices and in 2008 posted its tenth consecutive budget surplus. As a result of this positive fiscal situation, the need for economic reforms was less urgent and the government did not push through new initiatives. The drop in oil prices in late 2008 will reduce Kuwait's fiscal surplus in 2009. The global financial crisis may slow the pace of investment and development projects, but Kuwait has vowed to use its considerable financial resources to stabilize the economy if necessary.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $157.9 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $159.7 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 8.1% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $60,800 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 0.3%
industry: 52.2%
services: 47.5% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 2.225 million note: non-Kuwaitis represent about 80% of the labor force (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate: 2.2% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.7% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 18.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $113.3 billion
expenditures: $63.55 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt: 7.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, cement, shipbuilding and repair, water desalination, food processing, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 44.75 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 39.54 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 2.613 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 334,700 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 2.356 million bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 8,022 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 104 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 12.5 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 12.5 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.586 trillion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance: $65.21 billion (2008 est.)
Exports: $95.46 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil and refined products, fertilizers
Exports - partners: Japan 19.9%, South Korea 17%, Taiwan 11.2%, Singapore 9.9%, US 8.4%, Netherlands 4.8%, China 4.4% (2007)
Imports: $26.54 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: food, construction materials, vehicles and parts, clothing
Imports - partners: US 12.7%, Japan 8.5%, Germany 7.3%, China 6.8%, South Korea 6.6%, Saudi Arabia 6.2%, Italy 5.8%, UK 4.6% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $10.64 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $38.82 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $1.22 billion (2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $28.29 billion (2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $188 billion (31 December 2007)
Currency (code): Kuwaiti dinar (KD)
Exchange rates: Kuwaiti dinars (KD) per US dollar - 0.2679 (2008 est.), 0.2844 (2007), 0.29 (2006), 0.292 (2005), 0.2947 (2004)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
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MesajKonu: Geri: Kuwait(Kuveyt)   Salı Mart 31, 2009 7:47 pm

Communications
Telephones in use: 517,000 (2006)
Cellular Phones in use: 2.774 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: the quality of service is excellent
domestic: new telephone exchanges provide a large capacity for new subscribers; trunk traffic is carried by microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and open-wire and fiber-optic cable; a cellular telephone system operates throughout Kuwait, and the country is well supplied with pay telephones
international: country code - 965; linked to international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); linked to Bahrain, Qatar, UAE via the Fiber-Optic Gulf (FOG) cable; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 6 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean, and 2 Arabsat)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 11, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations: 13 (plus several satellite channels) (1997)
Internet country code: .kw
Internet hosts: 3,289 (2008)
Internet users: 900,000 (2007)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Kuwait(Kuveyt)   Salı Mart 31, 2009 7:47 pm

Transportation
Airports: 7 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Heliports: 4 (2007)
Pipelines: gas 269 km; oil 540 km; refined products 57 km (2007)
Roadways: total: 5,749 km
paved: 4,887 km
unpaved: 862 km (2004)
Merchant marine: total: 38
by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 1, carrier 3, container 6, liquefied gas 4, petroleum tanker 22
registered in other countries: 34 (Bahrain 5, Comoros 1, Libya 1, Panama 2, Qatar 7, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saudi Arabia 7, UAE 10) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Ash Shu'aybah, Ash Shuwaykh, Az Zawr (Mina' Sa'ud), Mina' 'Abd Allah, Mina' al Ahmadi
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MesajKonu: Geri: Kuwait(Kuveyt)   Salı Mart 31, 2009 7:47 pm

Military

Military branches: Land Forces, Kuwaiti Navy, Kuwaiti Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Kuwaitiya), National Guard (2007)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; reserve obligation to age 40 with 1 month annual training; women have served in police forces since 1999 (2006)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,032,408
females age 16-49: 568,657 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 892,816
females age 16-49: 500,540 (2008 est.)
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