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 Liechtenstein

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MesajKonu: Liechtenstein   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:36 pm

The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719. Occupied by both French and Russian troops during the Napoleanic wars, it became a sovereign state in 1806 and joined the Germanic Confederation in 1815. Liechtenstein became fully independent in 1866 when the Confederation dissolved. Until the end of World War I, it was closely tied to Austria, but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to enter into a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral), the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth. In 2000, shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight resulted in concerns about the use of financial institutions for money laundering. However, Liechtenstein implemented anti-money-laundering legislation and a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty with the US went into effect in 2003.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Liechtenstein   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:36 pm

Geography
Along with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation.
Location: Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland
Geographic coordinates: 47 16 N, 9 32 E
Area: total: 160 sq km
land: 160 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Size comparison: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries: total: 76 km
border countries: Austria 34.9 km, Switzerland 41.1 km
Coastline: 0 km (doubly landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Ruggeller Riet 430 m
highest point: Vorder-Grauspitz 2,599 m
Natural resources: hydroelectric potential, arable land
Land use: arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 75% (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: NA
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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MesajKonu: Geri: Liechtenstein   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:36 pm

People
Population: 34,498 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.9% (male 2,892/female 2,927)
15-64 years: 69.8% (male 11,905/female 12,180)
65 years and over: 13.3% (male 1,964/female 2,630) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 40.5 years
male: 40 years
female: 41 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.713% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 9.86 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 7.42 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: 4.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.52 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.03 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.95 years
male: 76.38 years
female: 83.52 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.51 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Liechtensteiner(s)
adjective: Liechtenstein
Ethnic groups: Liechtensteiner 65.6%, other 34.4% (2000 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 76.2%, Protestant 7%, unknown 10.6%, other 6.2% (June 2002)
Languages: German (official), Alemannic dialect
Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%
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MesajKonu: Geri: Liechtenstein   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:37 pm

Government
Country name: conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein
conventional short form: Liechtenstein
local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein
local short form: Liechtenstein
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Vaduz
geographic coordinates: 47 08 N, 9 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 11 communes (Gemeinden, singular - Gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz
Independence: 23 January 1719 (Principality of Liechtenstein established); 12 July 1806 (independence from the Holy Roman Empire)
National holiday: Assumption Day, 15 August
Constitution: 5 October 1921; amended 15 September 2003
Legal system: local civil and penal codes based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968); note - on 15 August 2004, HANS ADAM transferred the official duties of the ruling prince to ALOIS, but HANS ADAM retains status of chief of state
head of government: Head of Government (Prime Minister) Otmar HASLER (since 5 April 2001); Deputy Head of Government (Deputy Prime Minister) Klaus TSCHUETSCHER (since 21 April 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Parliament, confirmed by the monarch
elections: the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Landtag is usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party in the Landtag is usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch if there is a coalition government
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Landtag (25 seats; members are elected by popular vote under proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 11 and 13 March 2005 (next to be held February 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - FBP 48.7%, VU 38.2%, FL 13%; seats by party - FBP 12, VU 10, FL 3
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Court of Appeal or Obergericht
Political parties and leaders: Patriotic Union or VU [Adolf HEEB] (was Fatherland Union); Progressive Citizens' Party or FBP [Marcus VOGT]; The Free List or FL [Claudia HEEB-FLECK and Egon MATT]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: CE, EBRD, EFTA, IAEA, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WIPO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Claudia FRITSCHE
chancery: 2900 K Street, NW, Suite 602B, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0590
FAX: [1] (202) 331-3221
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Liechtenstein; the US Ambassador to Switzerland is accredited to Liechtenstein
Executive branch: chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968); note - on 15 August 2004, HANS ADAM transferred the official duties of the ruling prince to ALOIS, but HANS ADAM retains status of chief of state head of government: Head of Government (Prime Minister) Otmar HASLER (since 5 April 2001); Deputy Head of Government (Deputy Prime Minister) Klaus TSCHUETSCHER (since 21 April 2005) cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Parliament, confirmed by the monarch elections: the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Landtag is usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party in the Landtag is usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch if there is a coalition government
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MesajKonu: Geri: Liechtenstein   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:37 pm

Economy
Despite its small size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service sector and the highest per capita income in the world. The Liechtenstein economy is widely diversified with a large number of small businesses. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 20% - and easy incorporation rules have induced many holding companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the EU) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe. In 2008 Liechtenstein came under renewed international pressure - particularly from Germany - to improve transparency in its banking and tax systems.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $4.16 billion (2007)
GDP (official exchange rate): $4.993 billion (2007)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.1% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $118,000 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8%
industry: 39%
services: 54% (2007)
Labor force: 31,000 of whom 13,900 commute from Austria, Switzerland, and Germany to work each day (31 December 2006)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 1.7%
industry: 43.5%
services: 55.4% (31 December 2006)
Unemployment rate: 1.5% (31 December 2007)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (2001)
Budget: revenues: $424.2 million
expenditures: $414.1 million (1998 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, dental products, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism, optical instruments
Industrial production growth rate:
Exports: $2.47 billion (1996)
Exports - commodities: small specialty machinery, connectors for audio and video, parts for motor vehicles, dental products, hardware, prepared foodstuffs, electronic equipment, optical products
Imports: $917.3 million (1996)
Imports - commodities: agricultural products, raw materials, energy products, machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
Debt - external: $0 (2001)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Currency (code): Swiss franc (CHF)
Exchange rates: Swiss francs (CHF) per US dollar - 1.0774 (2008 est.), 1.1973 (2007), 1.2539 (2006), 1.2452 (2005), 1.2435 (2004)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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MesajKonu: Geri: Liechtenstein   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:37 pm

Communications
Telephones in use: 20,000 (2005)
Cellular Phones in use: 27,500 (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: country code - 423; linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay
Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations: NA (linked to Swiss networks) (1997)
Internet country code: .li
Internet hosts: 7,639 (2008)
Internet users: 22,000 (2006)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Liechtenstein   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:37 pm

Transportation
Pipelines: gas 20 km (2007)
Railways: 9 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)
note: belongs to the Austrian Railway System connecting Austria and Switzerland (2006)
Roadways: total: 380 km
paved: 380 km (2007)
Waterways: 28 km (2008)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Liechtenstein   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:37 pm

Military
Liechtenstein has no military forces, but is interested in European security policy and is an active member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
Military branches: no regular military forces (constitutionally prohibited); Principality of Liechtenstein National Police (Landespolizei, LP) (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 8,102 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 6,584 (2008 est.)
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