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 Lithuania(LİTVANYA)

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MesajKonu: Lithuania(LİTVANYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:47 pm

Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795, when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Lithuania(LİTVANYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:47 pm

Geography
Fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits.
Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 24 00 E
Area: total: 65,300 sq km
land: NA sq km
water: NA sq km
Size comparison: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land Boundaries: total: 1,574 km
border countries: Belarus 680 km, Latvia 576 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km
Coastline: 90 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate: transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
Terrain: lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines Kalnas 293.6 m
Natural resources: peat, arable land, amber
Land use: arable land: 44.81%
permanent crops: 0.9%
other: 54.29% (2005)
Irrigated land: 70 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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MesajKonu: Geri: Lithuania(LİTVANYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:47 pm

People
Population: 3,565,205 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.5% (male 264,668/female 250,997)
15-64 years: 69.5% (male 1,214,236/female 1,263,198)
65 years and over: 16% (male 197,498/female 374,608) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 39 years
male: 36.4 years
female: 41.6 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.284% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 9 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 11.12 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female
total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 6.57 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.86 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.67 years
male: 69.72 years
female: 79.89 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.22 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,300 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian
Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 83.4%, Polish 6.7%, Russian 6.3%, other or unspecified 3.6% (2001 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 79%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Protestant (including Lutheran and Evangelical Christian Baptist) 1.9%, other or unspecified 5.5%, none 9.5% (2001 census)
Languages: Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.6% (2001 census)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Lithuania(LİTVANYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:47 pm

Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Vilnius
geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus
Independence: 11 March 1990 (declared); 6 September 1991 (recognized by Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution: adopted 25 October 1992; last amended 13 July 2004
Legal system: based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 12 July 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Andrius KUBILIUS (since 27 November 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 and 27 June 2004 (next to be held in May 2009); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 52.2%, Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE 47.8%; Andrius KUBILIUS' government approved by Parliament 83-40 with 5 abstentions
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members are elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 12 and 26 October 2008 (next to be held October 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - TS-LKD 19.7%, TPP 15.1%, TT 12.7%, LSDP 11.7%, KDP+J 9%, LRLS 5.7%, LCS 5.3%, LLRA 4.8%, LVLS 3.7%, NS 3.6%, other 8.7%; seats by faction - TS-LKD 44, LSDP 26, TPP 16, TT 15, LRLS 11, KDP+J 10, LCS 8, LLRA 3, LVLS 3, NS 1, independent 4
Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the president
Political parties and leaders: Civil Democracy Party or PDP [Viktor MUNTIANAS]; Coalition of Labor Party and Youth or KDP+J [Viktor USPASKICH]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI]; Homeland Union - Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Andrius KUBILIUS]; Lithuanian Peasant Popular Union or LVLS [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE]; Liberal and Center Union or LCS [Arturas ZUOKAS]; Liberal Movement or LRLS [Petras AUSTREVICIUS]; National Revival or TPP [Arunas VALINSKAS]; New Union (Social Liberal) or NS [Arturas PAULAUSKAS]; Order and Justice Party or TT [Rolandas PAKSAS]; Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Gediminas KIRKILAS]; Young Lithuania and New Nationalists [Stanislovas BUSKEVICIUS]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Europe House (promotes the EU); European Movement (promotes the EU); Lithuanian Future Forum (promotes the EU)
International organization participation: Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Audrius BRUZGA
chancery: temporary address: 2300 Clarendon Boulevard, Suite 302, Arlington, VA 22201
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John A. CLOUD
embassy: Akmenu gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106
mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106
telephone: [370] (5) 266 5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266 5510
Executive branch: chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 12 July 2004) head of government: Prime Minister Andrius KUBILIUS (since 27 November 2008) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 and 27 June 2004 (next to be held in May 2009); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 52.2%, Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE 47.8%; Andrius KUBILIUS' government approved by Parliament 83-40 with 5 abstentions
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MesajKonu: Geri: Lithuania(LİTVANYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:48 pm

Economy
Lithuania has grown on average 8% per year over the last four years, driven by exports and domestic consumer demand. Unemployment stood at 4.8% in 2008, while wages continued to grow at double digit rates. The current account deficit rose to roughly 15% of GDP in 2007-08. Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade Organization and joined the EU in May 2004. Despite Lithuania's EU accession, Lithuania's trade with its Central and Eastern European neighbors, and Russia in particular, accounts for a growing percentage of total trade. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities is nearly complete. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $65.76 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $48.75 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.1% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $18,400 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4.3%
industry: 32.8%
services: 62.8% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 1.601 million (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 14%
industry: 29.1%
services: 56.9% (2005)
Unemployment rate: 4.8% note: based on survey data, official registered unemployment of 5.7% (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line: 4% (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 27.7% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 36 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 27.8% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $15.4 billion
expenditures: $15.86 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt: 11.9% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 11.91 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 10.4 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 7.217 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 5.846 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 8,250 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 57,170 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 148,400 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 206,700 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 12 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 3.44 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 3.44 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: -$6.775 billion (2008 est.)
Exports: $23.48 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: mineral products 23%, textiles and clothing 16%, machinery and equipment 11%, chemicals 6%, wood and wood products 5%, foodstuffs 5% (2001)
Exports - partners: Russia 15%, Latvia 12.9%, Germany 10.5%, Poland 6.3%, Estonia 5.8%, UK 4.6%, Denmark 4.1%, Belarus 4% (2007)
Imports: $30.26 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: mineral products, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals
Imports - partners: Russia 18%, Germany 15%, Poland 10.6%, Latvia 5.5%, Netherlands 4.3% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $8.397 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $35.46 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $16.43 billion (2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $2.142 billion (2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $10.13 billion (31 December 2007)
Currency (code): litas (LTL)
Exchange rates: litai (LTL) per US dollar - 2.3251 (2008 est.), 2.5362 (2007), 2.7498 (2006), 2.774 (2005), 2.7806 (2004)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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MesajKonu: Geri: Lithuania(LİTVANYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:48 pm

Communications
Telephones in use: 799,400 (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 4.912 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access
domestic: rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of main line subscriptions; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to about 135 per 100 persons while fixed-line teledensity has dropped to 22 per 100 persons
international: country code - 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)
Television broadcast stations: 27 (may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations) (2001)
Internet country code: .lt
Internet hosts: 812,083 (2008)
Internet users: 1.333 million (2007)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Lithuania(LİTVANYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:48 pm

Transportation
Airports: 87 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 30
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 17 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 57
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 53 (2007)
Pipelines: gas 1,695 km; oil 228 km; refined products 121 km (2007)
Railways: total: 1,771 km
broad gauge: 1,749 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)
standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Roadways: total: 80,715 km
paved: 71,301 km (includes 309 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,414 km (2007)
Waterways: 441 km (2007)
Merchant marine: total: 45
by type: cargo 23, container 2, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 13
foreign-owned: 6 (Denmark 5, Ukraine 1)
registered in other countries: 28 (Antigua and Barbuda 5, Cook Islands 1, North Korea 1, Malta 1, Norway 1, Panama 7, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9, unknown 3) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Klaipeda
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MesajKonu: Geri: Lithuania(LİTVANYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:48 pm

Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Naval Force, Lithuanian Military Air Forces, National Defense Volunteer Forces (2005)
Military service age and obligation: 19-45 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for volunteers; 12-month conscript service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 915,187
females age 16-49: 906,097 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 678,434
females age 16-49: 749,483 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Lithuania(LİTVANYA)   Bugün 4:21 pm

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