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 Libya(LİBYA)

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MesajKonu: Libya(LİBYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:53 pm

The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI began to espouse his own political system, the Third Universal Theory. The system is a combination of socialism and Islam derived in part from tribal practices and is supposed to be implemented by the Libyan people themselves in a unique form of "direct democracy." QADHAFI has always seen himself as a revolutionary and visionary leader. He used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. In addition, beginning in 1973, he engaged in military operations in northern Chad's Aozou Strip - to gain access to minerals and to use as a base of influence in Chadian politics - but was forced to retreat in 1987. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically following the downing of Pan AM Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. During the 1990s, QADHAFI began to rebuild his relationships with Europe. UN sanctions were suspended in April 1999 and finally lifted in September 2003 after Libya accepted responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing. In December 2003, Libya announced that it had agreed to reveal and end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction and to renounce terrorism. QADHAFI has made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations since then. He has received various Western European leaders as well as many working-level and commercial delegations, and made his first trip to Western Europe in 15 years when he traveled to Brussels in April 2004. Libya has responded in good faith to legal cases brought against it in US courts for terrorist acts that predate its renunciation of violence. The US rescinded Libya's designation as a state sponsor of terrorism in June 2006. In August 2008, Tripoli agreed to pay compensation to all American victims of Libyan terrorist acts, including the Lockerbie bombing, the LaBelle disco bombing, and the UTA 772 bombing. In 2008, Libya assumed a nonpermanent seat on the United Nations Security Council for the 2008/09 term.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Libya(LİBYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:53 pm

Geography
More than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert.
Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia
Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 17 00 E
Area: total: 1,759,540 sq km
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Size comparison: slightly larger than Alaska

Land Boundaries: total: 4,348 km
border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km
Coastline: 1,770 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north
exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm
Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Land use: arable land: 1.03%
permanent crops: 0.19%
other: 98.78% (2005)
Irrigated land: 4,700 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
Current Environment Issues: desertification; limited natural fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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MesajKonu: Geri: Libya(LİBYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:54 pm

Government
Country name: conventional long form: Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma
local short form: none
Government type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in practice, an authoritarian state
Capital: name: Tripoli
geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 25 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan; note - the 25 municipalities may have been replaced by 13 regions
Independence: 24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)
Constitution: none; note - following the September 1969 military overthrow of the Libyan government, the Revolutionary Command Council replaced the existing constitution with the Constitutional Proclamation in December 1969; in March 1977, Libya adopted the Declaration of the Establishment of the People's Authority
Legal system: based on Italian and French civil law systems and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state
head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee (Prime Minister) al-Baghdadi Ali al-MAHMUDI (since 5 March 2006)
cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General People's Congress
elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; head of government elected by the General People's Congress; election last held March 2006 (next to be held NA)
election results: NA
Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress (approximately 2,700 seats; members elected indirectly through a hierarchy of people's committees)
Judicial branch: Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders: none
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: Arab nationalist movements; anti-QADHAFI Libyan exile Movement; Islamic elements
International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ali Suleiman AUJALI
chancery: 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 705, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 944-9601
FAX: [1] (202) 944-9060
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (designate) Gene A. CRETZ
embassy: off Jaraba Street, behind the Libyan-Swiss clinic, Ben Ashour
mailing address: US Embassy, 8850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20521-8850
telephone: [218] 91-220-3239
Executive branch: chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee (Prime Minister) al-Baghdadi Ali al-MAHMUDI (since 5 March 2006) cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General People's Congress elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; head of government elected by the General People's Congress; election last held March 2006 (next to be held NA) election results: NA
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MesajKonu: Geri: Libya(LİBYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:54 pm

Economy
The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contribute about 95% of export earnings, about one-quarter of GDP, and 60% of public sector wages. The expected weakness in world hydrocarbon prices throughout 2009 will reduce Libyan government tax income and limit Libyan economic growth in 2009. Substantial revenues from the energy sector coupled with a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society. Libyan officials in the past five years have made progress on economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold. This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 and as Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction. All US unilateral sanctions against Libya were removed by late-2008, helping Libya attract more foreign direct investment, mostly in the energy sector. Libyan oil and gas licensing rounds continue to draw high international interest; the National Oil Company set a goal of nearly doubling oil production to 3 million bbl/day by 2015. Libya faces a long road ahead in liberalizing the socialist-oriented economy, but initial steps - including applying for WTO membership, reducing some subsidies, and announcing plans for privatization - are laying the groundwork for a transition to a more market-based economy. The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for more than 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food. Libya's primary agricultural water source remains the Great Manmade River Project, but significant resources are being invested in desalinization research to meet growing water demands.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $92.01 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $108.5 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.3% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $14,900 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1.5%
industry: 61.7%
services: 36.8% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 1.916 million (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 17%
industry: 23%
services: 59% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate: 30% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: 7.4% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.5% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 8.1% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $56.35 billion
expenditures: $29.12 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt: 3.6% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: petroleum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 23.98 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 20.71 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 1.845 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 278,700 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 1.455 million bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 575.3 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 41.46 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 14.8 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 6.39 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 9.9 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.419 trillion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance: $43.33 billion (2008 est.)
Exports: $66.13 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals
Exports - partners: Italy 40.5%, Germany 12.2%, US 7.4%, Spain 7.4%, France 6.3% (2007)
Imports: $20.64 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products
Imports - partners: Italy 18.9%, Germany 7.7%, China 7.3%, Tunisia 6.8%, France 5.7%, Turkey 5.4%, US 4.3% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $99.45 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $5.521 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $8.736 billion (2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $4.783 billion (2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Currency (code): Libyan dinar (LYD)
Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LYD) per US dollar - 1.2112 (2008 est.), 1.2604 (2007), 1.3108 (2006), 1.3084 (2005), 1.305 (2004)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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MesajKonu: Geri: Libya(LİBYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:55 pm

Communications
Telephones in use: 852,300 (2005)
Cellular Phones in use: 4.5 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: telecommunications system is being modernized; mobile cellular telephone system became operational in 1996; combined fixed line and mobile telephone density approached 90 telephones per 100 persons in 2007
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, cellular, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cables to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 3, shortwave 3 (2001)
Television broadcast stations: 12 (plus 1 repeater) (1999)
Internet country code: .ly
Internet hosts: 31 (2008)
Internet users: 260,000 (2006)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Libya(LİBYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:55 pm

Transportation
Airports: 141 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 60
over 3,047 m: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 81
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 41
under 914 m: 18 (2007)
Heliports: 2 (2007)
Pipelines: condensate 882 km; gas 3,425 km; oil 6,956 km (2007)
Railways: 0 km
note: Libya has announced plans to build seven lines totaling 2,757 km of 1.435-m gauge track (2006)
Roadways: total: 100,024 km
paved: 57,214 km
unpaved: 42,810 km (2003)
Merchant marine: total: 17
by type: cargo 9, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 4 (Kuwait 1, Norway 1, Syria 2)
registered in other countries: 3 (Malta 3) (2008)
Ports and terminals: As Sidrah, Az Zuwaytinah, Marsa al Burayqah, Ra's Lanuf, Tripoli, Zawiyah
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MesajKonu: Geri: Libya(LİBYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 4:55 pm

Military

Military branches: Armed Peoples on Duty (APOD, Army), Libyan Arab Navy, Libyan Arab Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jamahiriya al-Arabia al-Libyya, LAAF) (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age (2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,682,183
females age 16-49: 1,611,001 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,439,941
females age 16-49: 1,381,914 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Libya(LİBYA)   Bugün 8:31 am

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