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 Moldova(MOLDOVA)

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MesajKonu: Moldova(MOLDOVA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:00 pm

Formerly part of Romania, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. One of the poorest nations in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president in 2001.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Moldova(MOLDOVA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:02 pm

Geography
Landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone.
Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 29 00 E
Area: total: 33,843 sq km
land: 33,371 sq km
water: 472 sq km
Size comparison: slightly larger than Maryland

Land Boundaries: total: 1,390 km
border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 940 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: moderate winters, warm summers
Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Dniester River 2 m
highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone
Land use: arable land: 54.52%
permanent crops: 8.81%
other: 36.67% (2005)
Irrigated land: 3,000 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: landslides
Current Environment Issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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People
Population: 4,324,450 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.3% (male 361,000/female 341,785)
15-64 years: 72.9% (male 1,528,080/female 1,622,620)
65 years and over: 10.9% (male 174,448/female 296,517) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 34.3 years
male: 32.4 years
female: 36.4 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.092% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 11.01 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 10.8 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 13.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 14.95 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.5 years
male: 66.81 years
female: 74.41 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.26 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 5,500 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 300 (2001 est.)
Nationality: noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan
Ethnic groups: Moldovan/Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3% (2004 census) note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)
Languages: Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.7%
female: 98.6% (2005 est.)
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Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: Moldova
former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Chisinau (Kishinev)
note: pronounced kee-shee-now
geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 32 raions (raioane, singular - raionul), 3 municipalities (municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)
raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni
municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau
autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia
territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)
Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
Constitution: new constitution adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994; replaced old Soviet constitution of 1979
Legal system: based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Zinaida GRECEANII (since 31 March 2008); First Deputy Prime Minister Igor DODON (since 31 March 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 April 2005 (next to be held in 2009); note - prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 21 March 2008; cabinet received a vote of confidence 31 March 2008
election results: Vladimir VORONIN reelected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 75, Gheorghe DUCA 1; Zinaida GRECEANII designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 56 of 101
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 6 March 2005 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - PCRM 46.1%, Democratic Moldova Bloc (AMN, PD, PSL) 28.4%, PPCD 9.1%, other parties 16.4%; seats by party - PCRM 56, Democratic Moldova Bloc (AMN, PD, PSL) 34, PPCD 11
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
Political parties and leaders: Centrist Union or UCM [Vasile TARLEV]; Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]; Democratic Party or PD [Dumitru DIACOV]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLDM [Vladmir FILAT]; Liberal Party or PL [Mihai GHIMPU]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]; Our Moldova Alliance or AMN [Serafim URECHEAN]; Party for Social Democracy or PDSM [Dumitru BRAGHIS]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nicolae CHIRTOACA
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Asif CHAUDHRY
embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
Executive branch: chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001) head of government: Prime Minister Zinaida GRECEANII (since 31 March 2008); First Deputy Prime Minister Igor DODON (since 31 March 2008) cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 April 2005 (next to be held in 2009); note - prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 21 March 2008; cabinet received a vote of confidence 31 March 2008 election results: Vladimir VORONIN reelected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 75, Gheorghe DUCA 1; Zinaida GRECEANII designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 56 of 101
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MesajKonu: Geri: Moldova(MOLDOVA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:02 pm

Economy
Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. It enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import almost all of its energy supplies. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy was underscored at the end of 2005, when a Russian-owned electrical station in Moldova's separatist Transnistria region cut off power to Moldova and Russia's Gazprom cut off natural gas in disputes over pricing. Russia's decision to ban Moldovan wine and agricultural products, coupled with its decision to double the price Moldova paid for Russian natural gas, slowed GDP growth in 2006. However, in 2007-08 growth returned to the 6% level Moldova had achieved in 2000-05, boosted by Russia's partial removal of the bans, solid fixed capital investment, and strong domestic demand driven by remittances from abroad. Economic reforms have been slow because of corruption and strong political forces backing government controls. Nevertheless, the government's primary goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. The granting of EU trade preferences and increased exports to Russia will encourage higher growth rates, but the agreements are unlikely to serve as a panacea, given the extent to which export success depends on higher quality standards and other factors. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors. Also, the presence of an illegal separatist regime in Moldova's Transnistria region continues to be a drag on the Moldovan economy. The deteriorating global economic crisis did not seriously effect the Moldovan economy in 2008 due to its low exposure to the international financial system, but a global economic slowdown, particularly in the EU and Russia, could hurt the economy in 2009 as Moldova relies heavily on remittances from Moldovans abroad.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $10.76 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $6.197 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.7% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,500 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 17.3%
industry: 21.5%
services: 61.2% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 1.327 million (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 40.6%
industry: 16%
services: 43.3% (2005)
Unemployment rate: 2.1%; note - roughly 25% of working age Moldovans are employed abroad (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line: 29.5% (2005)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 26.4% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 33.2 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13.8% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 36.1% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $2.616 billion
expenditures: $2.628 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt: 21.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 3.824 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 5.806 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 229 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - imports: 3.741 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 15,770 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 50.03 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 14,450 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 50 million cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 2.44 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 2.44 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: -$903 million (2008 est.)
Exports: $1.79 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports - partners: Russia 25.3%, Romania 13%, Italy 10%, Ukraine 8.7%, Germany 8.5%, Poland 6.2%, Belarus 4.2% (2007)
Imports: $5 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
Imports - partners: Russia 20.5%, Ukraine 15.8%, Romania 15%, Germany 8.7%, Italy 5.7%, Poland 4.1% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.65 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $4.092 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $573.9 million (2004)
Currency (code): Moldovan leu (MDL)
Exchange rates: Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar - 10.326 (2008 est.), 12.177 (2007), 13.131 (2006), 12.6 (2005), 12.33 (2004)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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Communications
Telephones in use: 1.08 million (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 1.883 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way
domestic: depending on location, new subscribers may face long wait for service; multiple private operators of GSM mobile-cellular telephone service are operating; GPRS system is being introduced; a CDMA mobile telephone network began operations in 2007; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 70 per 100 persons
international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 29, shortwave NA (2006)
Television broadcast stations: 40 (2006)
Internet country code: .md
Internet hosts: 223,869 (2008)
Internet users: 700,000 (2007)
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Transportation
Airports: 10 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Pipelines: gas 1,980 km (2007)
Railways: total: 1,138 km
broad gauge: 1,124 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Roadways: total: 12,666 km
paved: 12,117 km
unpaved: 549 km (2007)
Waterways: 424 km (on Dniester and Prut rivers) (2008)
Merchant marine: total: 39
by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 32, chemical tanker 2, combination ore/oil 2, petroleum tanker 1
foreign-owned: 17 (Egypt 1, Romania 3, Russia 3, Syria 1, Turkey 3, Ukraine 5, Yemen 1) (2008)
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Military

Military branches: National Army: Ground Forces, Rapid Reaction Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service; 12-month service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,161,924
females age 16-49: 1,187,771 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 877,070
females age 16-49: 994,091 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Moldova(MOLDOVA)   Bugün 8:31 am

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