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 Marshall Islands(MARSHALL ADALARI)

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MesajKonu: Marshall Islands(MARSHALL ADALARI)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:09 pm

After almost four decades under US administration as the easternmost part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Marshall Islands attained independence in 1986 under a Compact of Free Association. Compensation claims continue as a result of US nuclear testing on some of the atolls between 1947 and 1962. The Marshall Islands hosts the US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Reagan Missile Test Site, a key installation in the US missile defense network.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Marshall Islands(MARSHALL ADALARI)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:09 pm

Geography
The islands of Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein atoll, famous as a World War II battleground, surrounds the world's largest lagoon and is used as a US missile test range; the island city of Ebeye is the second largest settlement in the Marshall Islands, after the capital of Majuro, and one of the most densely populated locations in the Pacific.
Location: Oceania, two archipelagic island chains of 29 atolls, each made up of many small islets, and five single islands in the North Pacific Ocean, about half way between Hawaii and Australia
Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 168 00 E
Area: total: 181.3 sq km
land: 181.3 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: the archipelago includes 11,673 sq km of lagoon waters and includes the atolls of Bikini, Enewetak, Kwajalein, Majuro, Rongelap, and Utirik
Size comparison: about the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 370.4 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; hot and humid; wet season May to November; islands border typhoon belt
Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Likiep 10 m
Natural resources: coconut products, marine products, deep seabed minerals
Land use: arable land: 11.11%
permanent crops: 44.44%
other: 44.45% (2005)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km
Natural hazards: infrequent typhoons
Current Environment Issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; pollution of Majuro lagoon from household waste and discharges from fishing vessels
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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People
Population: 63,174 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.5% (male 12,404/female 11,946)
15-64 years: 58.6% (male 18,937/female 18,095)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 869/female 923) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 21 years
male: 21 years
female: 20.9 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.142% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 31.52 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 4.57 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -5.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 26.36 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 29.58 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 22.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.9 years
male: 68.88 years
female: 73.03 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.68 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Marshallese (singular and plural)
adjective: Marshallese
Ethnic groups: Marshallese 92.1%, mixed Marshallese 5.9%, other 2% (2006)
Religions: Protestant 54.8%, Assembly of God 25.8%, Roman Catholic 8.4%, Bukot nan Jesus 2.8%, Mormon 2.1%, other Christian 3.6%, other 1%, none 1.5% (1999 census)
Languages: Marshallese (official) 98.2%, other languages 1.8% (1999 census) note: English (official), widely spoken as a second language
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.7%
male: 93.6%
female: 93.7% (1999)
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Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of the Marshall Islands
conventional short form: Marshall Islands
local long form: Republic of the Marshall Islands
local short form: Marshall Islands
abbreviation: RMI
former: Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Marshall Islands District
Government type: constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986 and the Amended Compact entered into force in May 2004
Capital: name: Majuro
geographic coordinates: 7 06 N, 171 23 E
time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 33 municipalities; Ailinginae, Ailinglaplap, Ailuk, Arno, Aur, Bikar, Bikini, Bokak, Ebon, Enewetak, Erikub, Jabat, Jaluit, Jemo, Kili, Kwajalein, Lae, Lib, Likiep, Majuro, Maloelap, Mejit, Mili, Namorik, Namu, Rongelap, Rongrik, Toke, Ujae, Ujelang, Utirik, Wotho, Wotje
Independence: 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Constitution Day, 1 May (1979)
Constitution: 1 May 1979
Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Litokwa TOMEING (since 7 January 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Litokwa TOMEING (since 7 January 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president from among the members of the legislature
elections: president elected by Parliament from among its members for a four-year term; election last held 7 January 2008 (next to be held in 2012)
election results: Litokwa TOMEING elected president; TOMEING received 18 votes to 15 for incumbent Kessai Hesa NOTE
Legislative branch: unicameral legislature or Nitijela (33 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 19 November 2007 (next to be held by November 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - independents 4
note: the Council of Chiefs or Ironij is a 12-member body comprised of tribal chiefs that advises on matters affecting customary law and practice
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; High Court; Traditional Rights Court
Political parties and leaders: traditionally there have been no formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures; the following two "groupings" have competed in legislative balloting in recent years - Aelon Kein Ad Party [Michael KABUA] and United Democratic Party or UDP [Litokwa TOMEING]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ACP, ADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Charles A. PAUL
chancery: 2433 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5414
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3236
consulate(s) general: Honolulu
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Clyde BISHOP
embassy: Oceanside, Mejen Weto, Long Island, Majuro
mailing address: P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96960-1379
telephone: [692] 247-4011
FAX: [692] 247-4012
Executive branch: chief of state: President Litokwa TOMEING (since 7 January 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Litokwa TOMEING (since 7 January 2008) cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president from among the members of the legislature elections: president elected by Parliament from among its members for a four-year term; election last held 7 January 2008 (next to be held in 2012) election results: Litokwa TOMEING elected president; TOMEING received 18 votes to 15 for incumbent Kessai Hesa NOTE
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MesajKonu: Geri: Marshall Islands(MARSHALL ADALARI)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:10 pm

Economy
US Government assistance is the mainstay of this tiny island economy. The Marshall Islands received more than $1 billion in aid from the US from 1986-2002. Agricultural production, primarily subsistence, is concentrated on small farms; the most important commercial crops are coconuts and breadfruit. Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts, tuna processing, and copra. The tourist industry, now a small source of foreign exchange employing less than 10% of the labor force, remains the best hope for future added income. The islands have few natural resources, and imports far exceed exports. Under the terms of the Amended Compact of Free Association, the US will provide millions of dollars per year to the Marshall Islands (RMI) through 2023, at which time a Trust Fund made up of US and RMI contributions will begin perpetual annual payouts. Government downsizing, drought, a drop in construction, the decline in tourism, and less income from the renewal of fishing vessel licenses have held GDP growth to an average of 1% over the past decade.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $115 million (2001 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $144 million (2005)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,900 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 31.7%
industry: 14.9%
services: 53.4% (2004 est.)
Labor force: 14,680 (2000)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 21.4%
industry: 20.9%
services: 57.7% (2000)
Unemployment rate: 30.9% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $42 million
expenditures: $40 million (1999)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: copra, tuna processing, tourism, craft items (from seashells, wood, and pearls)
Industrial production growth rate:
Exports: $9.1 million f.o.b. (2000)
Exports - commodities: copra cake, coconut oil, handicrafts, fish
Imports: $54.7 million f.o.b. (2000)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels, beverages and tobacco
Debt - external: $86.5 million (FY99/00 est.)
Currency (code): US dollar (USD)
Exchange rates: the US dollar is used
Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September
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Communications
Telephones in use: 4,500 (2004)
Cellular Phones in use: 700 (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: digital switching equipment; modern services include telex, cellular, Internet, international calling, caller ID, and leased data circuits
domestic: Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular, seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by high frequency radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes) and mini-satellite telephones
international: country code - 692; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein (2005)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0 (additionally, the US Armed Forces Radio and Television Services (Central Pacific Network) operate one FM and one AM station on Kwajalein) (2005)
Television broadcast stations: 2 (both are US military stations; Marshalls Broadcasting Service, a cable company, operates on Majuro) (2005)
Internet country code: .mh
Internet hosts: 3 (2008)
Internet users: 2,200 (2006)
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Transportation
Airports: 15 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Roadways: total: 2,028 km (includes 75 km of expressways) (2007)
Merchant marine: total: 1,049
by type: barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 284, cargo 71, carrier 1, chemical tanker 191, combination ore/oil 4, container 188, liquefied gas 47, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 221, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 14, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 6
foreign-owned: 990 (Australia 1, Bermuda 4, Brazil 1, Canada 6, Chile 4, China 7, Croatia 6, Cyprus 37, Denmark 10, Germany 235, Greece 269, Hong Kong 4, Iceland 3, India 1, Ireland 1, Isle of Man 1, Italy 3, Japan 17, South Korea 10, Latvia 16, Malaysia 3, Mexico 4, Monaco 13, Netherlands 8, Norway 66, Pakistan 1, Panama 1, Romania 1, Russia 9, Saudi Arabia 5, Singapore 18, Slovenia 4, Spain 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 12, Taiwan 1, Turkey 50, UAE 15, UK 9, UK 9, US 123) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Majuro
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Military
Defense is the responsibility of the US
Military branches: no regular military forces; under the 1983 Compact of Free Association, the US has full authority and responsibility for security and defense of the Marshall Islands; Marshall Islands Police (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 15,708 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 12,864 (2008 est.)
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