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     Mali(MALİ)

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    MesajKonu: Mali(MALİ)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:11 pm

    The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup - led by the current president Amadou TOURE - enabling Mali's emergence as one of the strongest democracies on the continent. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first democratic presidential election in 1992 and was reelected in 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, KONARE stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was subsequently elected to a second term in 2007. The elections were widely judged to be free and fair.
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Mali(MALİ)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:14 pm

    Geography
    Landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan.
    Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
    Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W
    Area: total: 1.24 million sq km
    land: 1.22 million sq km
    water: 20,000 sq km
    Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

    Land Boundaries: total: 7,243 km
    border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
    Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
    Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
    Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
    highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
    Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
    Land use: arable land: 3.76%
    permanent crops: 0.03%
    other: 96.21% (2005)
    Irrigated land: 2,360 sq km (2003)
    Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
    Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
    International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    ^Back to Top
    People
    Population: 12,324,029 (July 2008 est.)
    Age structure: 0-14 years: 48.2% (male 3,004,003/female 2,937,138)
    15-64 years: 48.7% (male 2,976,314/female 3,028,433)
    65 years and over: 3.1% (male 150,597/female 227,544) (2008 est.)
    Median age: total: 15.8 years
    male: 15.4 years
    female: 16.2 years (2008 est.)
    Population growth rate: 2.725% (2008 est.)
    Birth rate: 49.38 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Death rate: 16.16 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Net migration rate: -5.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
    Infant mortality rate: total: 103.83 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 113.41 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 93.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
    Life expectancy at birth: total population: 49.94 years
    male: 48 years
    female: 51.94 years (2008 est.)
    Total fertility rate: 7.34 children born/woman (2008 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.9% (2003 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 140,000 (2003 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths: 12,000 (2003 est.)
    Nationality: noun: Malian(s)
    adjective: Malian
    Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
    Religions: Muslim 90%, Christian 1%, indigenous beliefs 9%
    Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
    Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 46.4%
    male: 53.5%
    female: 39.6% (2003 est.)
    ^Back to Top
    Government
    Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mali
    conventional short form: Mali
    local long form: Republique de Mali
    local short form: Mali
    former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
    Government type: republic
    Capital: name: Bamako
    geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
    Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)
    National holiday: Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
    Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992
    Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
    Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch: chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)
    head of government: Prime Minister Modibo SIDIBE (since 28 September 2007)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE reelected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 71.2%, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 19.2%, other 9.6%
    Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 1 and 22 July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADP coalition 113 (including ADEMA 51, URD 34, MPR 8, CNID 7, UDD 3, and other 10), FDR coalition 15 (including RPM 11, PARENA 4), SADI 4, independent 15
    Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
    Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region); African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]; Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]; Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]; Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]; Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
    Political pressure groups and leaders: other: the army; Islamic authorities; rebels in the northern region; state-run cotton company CMDT; tuaregs
    International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Abdoulaye DIOP
    chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
    FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
    Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gillian A. MILOVANOVIC
    embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
    mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
    telephone: [223] 270-2300
    FAX: [223] 270-2479
    Executive branch: chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Modibo SIDIBE (since 28 September 2007) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2012); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE reelected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 71.2%, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 19.2%, other 9.6%
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Mali(MALİ)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:14 pm

    Economy
    Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert and with a highly unequal distribution of income. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export, along with gold. The government has continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a 5% average in 1996-2008. Worker remittances and external trade routes for the landlocked country have been jeopardized by continued unrest in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire.
    GDP (purchasing power parity): $14.98 billion (2008 est.)
    GDP (official exchange rate): $8.776 billion (2008 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2008 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,200 (2008 est.)
    GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 45%
    industry: 17%
    services: 38% (2001 est.)
    Labor force: 5.4 million (2007 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80%
    industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)
    Unemployment rate: 30% (2004 est.)
    Population below poverty line: 36.1% (2005 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.4%
    highest 10%: 30.2% (2001)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index: 40.1 (2001)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2007 est.)
    Budget: revenues: $1.5 billion
    expenditures: $1.8 billion (2006 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    Industries: food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
    Industrial production growth rate:
    Electricity - production: 505 million kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - consumption: 469.7 million kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - exports: 0 kWh; note - recent hydropower developments may be providing electricity to Senegal and Mauritania (2007 est.)
    Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
    Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - consumption: 4,640 bbl/day (2006 est.)
    Oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2006)
    Oil - imports: 4,860 bbl/day (2005 est.)
    Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
    Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
    Current account balance: -$446 million (2007 est.)
    Exports: $294 million f.o.b. (2006)
    Exports - commodities: cotton, gold, livestock
    Exports - partners: China 19.6%, Thailand 10.5%, Brazil 4.6%, France 4.5%, Indonesia 4.5% (2007)
    Imports: $2.358 billion f.o.b. (2006)
    Imports - commodities: petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
    Imports - partners: France 12.9%, Senegal 12.7%, Cote d'Ivoire 10.9%, China 4.9% (2007)
    Debt - external: $2.8 billion (2002)
    Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
    Currency (code): Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
    Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar 438.77 (2008 est.), 493.51 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004) note: since 1 January 1999, the XOF franc has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF francs per euro
    Fiscal year: calendar year
    ^Back to Top
    Communications
    Telephones in use: 85,000 (2007)
    Cellular Phones in use: 2.483 million (2007)
    Telephone system: general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service
    domestic: fixed-line availability is gradually increasing, but subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to 20 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 223; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2007)
    Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 230 (27 regional and government stations, and 203 private stations), shortwave 1 (2001)
    Television broadcast stations: 2 (plus repeaters) (2007)
    Internet country code: .ml
    Internet hosts: 387 (2008)
    Internet users: 100,000 (2007)
    ^Back to Top
    Transportation
    Airports: 29 (2007)
    Airports (paved runways): total: 8
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2007)
    Airports (unpaved runways): total: 21
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
    914 to 1,523 m: 7
    under 914 m: 8 (2007)
    Railways: total: 729 km
    narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
    Roadways: total: 18,709 km
    paved: 3,368 km
    unpaved: 15,341 km (2004)
    Waterways: 1,800 km (2008)
    Ports and terminals: Koulikoro
    ^Back to Top
    Military

    Military branches: Malian Armed Forces: Army, Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (2008)
    Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2008)
    Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,603,700
    females age 16-49: 2,441,776 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,594,184
    females age 16-49: 1,529,871 (2008 est.)
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    MesajKonu: Geri: Mali(MALİ)   Bugün 2:52 am

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