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 Montserrat

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MesajKonu: Montserrat   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:26 pm

English and Irish colonists from St. Kitts first settled on Montserrat in 1632; the first African slaves arrived three decades later. The British and French fought for possession of the island for most of the 18th century, but it finally was confirmed as a British possession in 1783. The island's sugar plantation economy was converted to small farm landholdings in the mid 19th century. Much of this island was devastated and two-thirds of the population fled abroad because of the eruption of the Soufriere Hills Volcano that began on 18 July 1995. Montserrat has endured volcanic activity since, with the last eruption occurring in July 2003.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Montserrat   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:26 pm

Geography
The island is entirely volcanic in origin and comprised of three major volcanic centers of differing ages.
Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 62 12 W
Area: total: 102 sq km
land: 102 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Size comparison: about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 40 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: volcanic island, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: lava dome in English's Crater (in the Soufriere Hills volcanic complex) estimated at over 930 m (2006)
Natural resources: NEGL
Land use: arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 80% (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: severe hurricanes (June to November); volcanic eruptions (Soufriere Hills volcano has erupted continuously since 1995)
Current Environment Issues: land erosion occurs on slopes that have been cleared for cultivation
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People
Population: 5,079 note: an estimated 8,000 refugees left the island following the resumption of volcanic activity in July 1995; some have returned (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.8% (male 738/female 675)
15-64 years: 64.8% (male 1,575/female 1,716)
65 years and over: 7.4% (male 245/female 130) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 28.1 years
male: 28 years
female: 28.1 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.315% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 12.01 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 8.86 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: NA (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 16.46 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.19 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.6 years
male: 74.66 years
female: 70.44 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.22 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Montserratian(s)
adjective: Montserratian
Ethnic groups: black, white
Religions: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Seventh-Day Adventist, other Christian denominations
Languages: English
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 97% (1970 est.)
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Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montserrat
Government type: NA
Capital: name: Plymouth
geographic coordinates: 16 42 N, 62 13 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Plymouth was abandoned in 1997 because of volcanic activity; interim government buildings have been built at Brades Estate in the Carr's Bay/Little Bay vicinity at the northwest end of Montserrat
Administrative divisions: 3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges, Saint Peter
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday: Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II, second Saturday in June (1926)
Constitution: effective 19 December 1989
Legal system: English common law and statutory law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Peter A. WATERWORTH (since 27 July 2007)
head of government: Chief Minister Lowell LEWIS (since 2 June 2006)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the chief minister, three other ministers, the attorney general, and the finance secretary
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes chief minister
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (11 seats, 9 popularly elected; members serve five-year terms)
note: expanded in 2001 from 7 to 9 elected members with attorney general and financial secretary sitting as ex-officio members
elections: last held 31 May 2006 (next to be held by 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - MCAP 36.1%, NPLM 29.4%, MDP 24.4%, independents 10.1%; seats by party - MCAP 4, NPLM 3, MDP 1, independents 1
note: in 2001, the Elections Commission instituted a single constituency/voter-at-large system whereby all eligible voters cast ballots for all nine seats of the Legislative Council
Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia, one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court)
Political parties and leaders: Montserrat Democratic Party or MDP [Lowell LEWIS]; Movement for Change and Prosperity or MCAP [Roselyn CASSELL-SEALY]; New People's Liberation Movement or NPLM [John A. OSBORNE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: Caricom, CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, UPU, WFTU
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Peter A. WATERWORTH (since 27 July 2007) head of government: Chief Minister Lowell LEWIS (since 2 June 2006) cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the chief minister, three other ministers, the attorney general, and the finance secretary elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes chief minister
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MesajKonu: Geri: Montserrat   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:27 pm

Economy
Severe volcanic activity, which began in July 1995, has put a damper on this small, open economy. A catastrophic eruption in June 1997 closed the airports and seaports, causing further economic and social dislocation. Two-thirds of the 12,000 inhabitants fled the island. Some began to return in 1998, but lack of housing limited the number. The agriculture sector continued to be affected by the lack of suitable land for farming and the destruction of crops. Prospects for the economy depend largely on developments in relation to the volcanic activity and on public sector construction activity. The UK has launched a three-year $122.8 million aid program to help reconstruct the economy. Half of the island is expected to remain uninhabitable for another decade.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $29 million (2002 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $NA
GDP - real growth rate: -1% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,400 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1.2%
industry: 23.1%
services: 75.7% (1999 est.)
Labor force: 4,521 note: lowered by flight of people from volcanic activity (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Unemployment rate: 6% (1998 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (2002 est.)
Budget: revenues: $31.4 million
expenditures: $31.6 million (1997 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: tourism, rum, textiles, electronic appliances
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 22 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 20.46 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 505.5 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 482.6 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Exports: $700,000 (2001)
Exports - commodities: electronic components, plastic bags, apparel; hot peppers, limes, live plants; cattle
Imports: $17 million (2001)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured goods, fuels, lubricants, and related materials
Debt - external: $8.9 million (1997)
Currency (code): East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2007), 2.7 (2006), 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003) note: fixed rate since 1976
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
^Back to Top
Communications
Telephones in use: NA
Cellular Phones in use: NA
Telephone system: general assessment: modern and fully digitalized
domestic: NA
international: country code - 1-664; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) optic submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)
Internet country code: .ms
Internet hosts: 409 (2008)
Internet users: NA
^Back to Top
Transportation
Airports: 2 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Roadways: note: volcanic eruptions that began in 1995 destroyed most of the 227 km road system; a new road infrastructure has been built in the north end of the island (2008)
Ports and terminals: Little Bay, Plymouth
^Back to Top
Military
Defense is the responsibility of the UK
Military branches: no regular military forces; Royal Montserrat Police Force (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,528 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 2,097 (2008 est.)
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