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 Maldives(MALDİVLER)

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MesajKonu: Maldives(MALDİVLER)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:30 pm

The Maldives was long a sultanate, first under Dutch and then under British protection. It became a republic in 1968, three years after independence. President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM dominated the islands' political scene for 30 years, elected to six successive terms by single-party referendums. Following riots in the capital Male in August 2004, the president and his government pledged to embark upon democratic reforms including a more representative political system and expanded political freedoms. Progress was sluggish, however, and many promised reforms were slow to be realized. Nonetheless, political parties were legalized in 2005. In June 2008, a constituent assembly - termed the "Special Majlis" - finalized a new constitution, which was ratified by the president in August. The first-ever presidential elections under a multi-candidate, multi-party system were held in October 2008. GAYOOM was defeated in a runoff poll by Mohamed NASHEED, a political activist who had been jailed several years earlier by the former regime. Challenges facing the new president include strengthening democracy and combating poverty and drug abuse.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Maldives(MALDİVLER)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:31 pm

Geography
1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands with tourist resorts); archipelago with strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean.
Location: Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India
Geographic coordinates: 3 15 N, 73 00 E
Area: total: 300 sq km
land: 300 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Size comparison: about 1.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 644 km
Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)
Terrain: flat, with white sandy beaches
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Wilingili island in the Addu Atoll 2.4 m
Natural resources: fish
Land use: arable land: 13.33%
permanent crops: 30%
other: 56.67% (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: low level of islands makes them sensitive to sea level rise
Current Environment Issues: depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies; global warming and sea level rise; coral reef bleaching
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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People
Population: 385,925 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.5% (male 46,174/female 44,396)
15-64 years: 72.7% (male 172,279/female 108,152)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 7,510/female 7,414) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 25.1 years
male: 26 years
female: 23.7 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 5.566% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 14.84 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 3.66 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: NA (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.59 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.41 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 30.63 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 33.15 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.72 years
male: 71.55 years
female: 76.01 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.97 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: fewer than 100 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Maldivian(s)
adjective: Maldivian
Ethnic groups: South Indians, Sinhalese, Arabs
Religions: Sunni Muslim
Languages: Maldivian Dhivehi (dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English spoken by most government officials
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.3%
male: 96.2%
female: 96.4% (2000 census)
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Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Maldives
conventional short form: Maldives
local long form: Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa
local short form: Dhivehi Raajje
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Male
geographic coordinates: 4 10 N, 73 30 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 19 atolls (atholhu, singular and plural) and the capital city*; Alifu, Baa, Dhaalu, Faafu, Gaafu Alifu, Gaafu Dhaalu, Gnaviyani, Haa Alifu, Haa Dhaalu, Kaafu, Laamu, Lhaviyani, Maale* (Male), Meemu, Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Vaavu
Independence: 26 July 1965 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1965)
Constitution: new constitution ratified 7 August 2008
Legal system: based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common law primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohamed "Anni" NASHEED (since 11 November 2008); Vice President Mohamed WAHEED Hassan Maniku (since 11 November 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mohamed "Anni" NASHEED (since 11 November 2008); Vice President Mohamed WAHEED Hassan Maniku (since 11 November 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: under the new constitution, the president is elected by direct vote; president elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 and 28 October 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: Mohamed NASHEED elected president; percent of vote - NASHEED 54.25%, Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM 45.75%
Legislative branch: unicameral People's Council or Majlis (50 seats; 42 members elected by popular vote, 8 appointed by the president; to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 22 January 2005 (next to be held in early 2009)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 50
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Supreme Court judges are appointed by the President with approval of voting members of the People's Council; High Court; Trial Courts; all lower court judges are appointed by the Judicial Service Commission
Political parties and leaders: Adhaalath (Justice) Party or AP [Abdul Majeed Abdul BARI]; Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party (Maldivian People's Party) or DRP [Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM]; Islamic Democratic Party or IDP [Omar NASEER]; Maldivian Democratic Party or MDP [Mohamed NASHEED]; note - political parties were allowed to register in June 2005
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: various unregistered political parties
International organization participation: ADB, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed Hussain MANIKU
chancery: 800 2nd Avenue, Suite 400E, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 599-6194
FAX: [1] (212) 599-6195
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Maldives; the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives and makes periodic visits
Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohamed "Anni" NASHEED (since 11 November 2008); Vice President Mohamed WAHEED Hassan Maniku (since 11 November 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Mohamed "Anni" NASHEED (since 11 November 2008); Vice President Mohamed WAHEED Hassan Maniku (since 11 November 2008) cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president elections: under the new constitution, the president is elected by direct vote; president elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 and 28 October 2008 (next to be held in 2013) election results: Mohamed NASHEED elected president; percent of vote - NASHEED 54.25%, Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM 45.75%
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MesajKonu: Geri: Maldives(MALDİVLER)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:31 pm

Economy
Tourism, Maldives' largest industry, accounts for 28% of GDP and more than 60% of the Maldives' foreign exchange receipts. Over 90% of government tax revenue comes from import duties and tourism-related taxes. Fishing is the second leading sector. Agriculture and manufacturing continue to play a lesser role in the economy, constrained by the limited availability of cultivable land and the shortage of domestic labor. Most staple foods must be imported. Industry, which consists mainly of garment production, boat building, and handicrafts, accounts for about 7% of GDP. The Maldivian Government began an economic reform program in 1989 initially by lifting import quotas and opening some exports to the private sector. Subsequently, it has liberalized regulations to allow more foreign investment. Real GDP growth averaged over 7.5% per year for more than a decade. In late December 2004, a major tsunami left more than 100 dead, 12,000 displaced, and property damage exceeding $300 million. As a result of the tsunami, the GDP contracted by about 3.6% in 2005. A rebound in tourism, post-tsunami reconstruction, and development of new resorts helped the economy recover quickly. The trade deficit has expanded sharply as a result of high oil prices and imports of construction material. Diversifying beyond tourism and fishing and increasing employment are the major challenges facing the government. Over the longer term Maldivian authorities worry about the impact of erosion and possible global warming on their low-lying country; 80% of the area is 1 meter or less above sea level. Government spending on subsidies and civil servant salaries have created a large budget deficit and doubled inflation over the last year to 11% in June 2008.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.746 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.296 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $4,500 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 16%
industry: 7%
services: 77% (2006 est.)
Labor force: 101,300 (2004)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 22%
industry: 18%
services: 60% (1995)
Unemployment rate: NEGL% (2003 est.)
Population below poverty line: 21% (2004)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (June 2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $508 million (including foreign grants)
expenditures: $671 million (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: tourism, fish processing, shipping, boat building, coconut processing, garments, woven mats, rope, handicrafts, coral and sand mining
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 230 million kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 203.7 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 5,490 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 1,499 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 5,362 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: -$472 million (2007)
Exports: $167 million f.o.b. (2006)
Exports - commodities: fish
Exports - partners: Thailand 28.3%, UK 17.6%, France 8.8%, Sri Lanka 8.6%, Algeria 8.2%, Japan 6.4%, Italy 4.1% (2007)
Imports: $930 million f.o.b. (2006)
Imports - commodities: petroleum products, ships, foodstuffs, clothing, intermediate and capital goods
Imports - partners: Canada 35.2%, Singapore 15%, UAE 10.2%, India 7.4%, Malaysia 7.1% (2007)
Debt - external: $482 million (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Currency (code): rufiyaa (MVR)
Exchange rates: rufiyaa (MVR) per US dollar - NA (2007), 12.8 (2006), 12.8 (2005), 12.8 (2004), 12.8 (2003)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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Communications
Telephones in use: 33,200 (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 317,800 (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: telephone services have improved; each island now has at least 1 public telephone, and there are mobile cellular networks with a rapidly expanding subscribership approaching 90 per 100 persons
domestic: interatoll communication through microwave links; all inhabited islands and resorts are connected with telephone and fax service
international: country code - 960; linked to international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth station - 3 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (2006)
Internet country code: .mv
Internet hosts: 1,600 (2008)
Internet users: 33,000 (2007)
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Transportation
Airports: 5 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)
Roadways: total: 88 km
paved roads: 88 km - 60 km in Male; 14 km on Addu Atolis; 14 km on Laamu
note: village roads are mainly compacted coral (2006)
Merchant marine: total: 29
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 23, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 2
foreign-owned: 1 (Greece 1)
registered in other countries: 2 (Panama 1, Tuvalu 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Male
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Military
The Maldives National Defense Force (MNDF), with its small size and with little serviceable equipment, is inadequate to prevent external aggression and is primarily tasked to reinforce the Maldives Police Service (MPS) and ensure security in the exclusive economic zone (2008)
Military branches: Maldives National Defense Force (MNDF): Quick Reaction Force, Security Protection Group, Coast Guard (2007)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 89,505
females age 16-49: 85,745 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 72,150
females age 16-49: 69,058 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Maldives(MALDİVLER)   Bugün 9:56 pm

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