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 Nigeria(NİJERYA)

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MesajKonu: Nigeria(NİJERYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:54 pm

British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Nigeria(NİJERYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:55 pm

Geography
The Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea.
Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 8 00 E
Area: total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
Size comparison: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land Boundaries: total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
Coastline: 853 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Terrain: southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use: arable land: 33.02%
permanent crops: 3.14%
other: 63.84% (2005)
Irrigated land: 2,820 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; flooding
Current Environment Issues: soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
^Back to Top
People
Population: 146,255,312 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.7% (male 31,171,949/female 29,806,204)
15-64 years: 55.3% (male 41,243,003/female 39,611,565)
65 years and over: 3% (male 2,152,318/female 2,270,267) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 18.9 years
male: 18.8 years
female: 19 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.025% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 37.23 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 16.88 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 95.74 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 101.83 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 89.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.53 years
male: 45.78 years
female: 47.32 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.01 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 5.4% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3.6 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 310,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
Ethnic groups: Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Languages: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 68%
male: 75.7%
female: 60.6% (2003 est.)
^Back to Top
Government
Country name: conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
Government type: federal republic
Capital: name: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Independence: 1 October 1960 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Constitution: new constitution adopted 5 May 1999; effective 29 May 1999
Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA (since 29 May 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA (since 29 May 2007)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011)
election results: Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA elected president; percent of vote - Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA 69.8%, Muhammadu BUHARI 18.7%, Atiku ABUBAKAR 7.5%, Orji Uzor KALU 1.7%, other 2.3%
Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats, 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011); House of Representatives - last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDP 53.7%, ANPP 27.9%, AD 9.7%, other 8.7%; seats by party - PDP 76, ANPP 27, AD 6; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDP 54.5%, ANPP 27.4%, AD 8.8%, UNPP 2.8%, NPD 1.9%, APGA 1.6%, PRP 0.8%; seats by party - PDP 76, ANPP 27, AD 6, UNPP 2, APGA 2, NPD 1, PRP 1, vacant 1
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges recommended by the National Judicial Council and appointed by the President); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government from a pool of judges recommended by the National Judicial Council)
Political parties and leaders: Accord Party [Ikra Aliyu BILBIS]; Action Congress or AC [Hassan ZUMI]; Alliance for Democracy or AD [Mojisoluwa AKINFENWA]; All Nigeria Peoples' Party or ANPP [Edwin UME-EZEOKE]; All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]; Democratic People's Party or DPP [Jeremiah USENI]; Fresh Democratic Party [Chris OKOTIE]; Labor Party [Dan NWANYANWU]; Movement for the Restoration and Defense of Democracy or MRDD [Mohammed Gambo JIMETA]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Aliyu Habu FARI]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Vincent OGBULAFOR]; Peoples Progressive Alliance [Clement EBRI]; Peoples Redemption Party or PRP [Abdulkadir Balarabe MUSA]; Peoples Salvation Party or PSP [Lawal MAITURARE]; United Nigeria Peoples Party or UNPP [Mallam Selah JAMBO]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU; Campaign for Democracy or CD; Civil Liberties Organization or CLO; Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR; Constitutional Right Project or CRP; Human Right Africa; National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL; National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS; Nigerian Bar Association or NBA; Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC; Nigerian Medical Association or NMA; the Press; Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Oluwole ROTIMI
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
FAX: [1] (202) 775-1385
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robin SANDERS
embassy: 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
FAX: [234] (9) 461-4036
Executive branch: chief of state: President Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA (since 29 May 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA (since 29 May 2007) cabinet: Federal Executive Council elections: president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011) election results: Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA elected president; percent of vote - Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA 69.8%, Muhammadu BUHARI 18.7%, Atiku ABUBAKAR 7.5%, Orji Uzor KALU 1.7%, other 2.3%
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MesajKonu: Geri: Nigeria(NİJERYA)   Cuma Nis. 03, 2009 5:55 pm

Economy
Oil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, has undertaken several reforms over the past decade. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 95% of foreign exchange earnings and about 80% of budgetary revenues. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. Since 2008 the government has begun showing the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as to modernize the banking system, to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. In 2003, the government began deregulating fuel prices, announced the privatization of the country's four oil refineries, and instituted the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy, a domestically designed and run program modeled on the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility for fiscal and monetary management. In November 2005, Abuja won Paris Club approval for a debt-relief deal that eliminated $18 billion of debt in exchange for $12 billion in payments - a total package worth $30 billion of Nigeria's total $37 billion external debt. The deal requires Nigeria to be subject to stringent IMF reviews. Based largely on increased oil exports and high global crude prices, GDP rose strongly in 2007 and 2008. President YAR'ADUA has pledged to continue the economic reforms of his predecessor with emphasis on infrastructure improvements. Infrastructure is the main impediment to growth. The government is working toward developing stronger public-private partnerships for electricity and roads.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $328.1 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $220.3 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.2% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,200 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 18%
industry: 50.9%
services: 31.1% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 51.04 million (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA
Population below poverty line: 70% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 33.2% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 43.7 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.6% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 21.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $29.49 billion
expenditures: $30.61 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt: 12.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 22.11 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 15.85 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 2.352 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 312,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 2.473 million bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 154,300 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 36.22 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 34.1 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 12.9 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 21.2 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 5.21 trillion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance: $7.722 billion (2008 est.)
Exports: $83.09 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
Exports - partners: US 51.6%, Brazil 8.9%, Spain 7.7% (2007)
Imports: $46.36 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports - partners: China 10.6%, Netherlands 7.9%, US 7.8%, South Korea 6.6%, UK 5.7%, France 4.3%, Brazil 4.2%, Germany 4.1% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $72.04 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $9.132 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $35.75 billion (2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $12.83 billion (2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $86.35 billion (31 December 2007)
Currency (code): naira (NGN)
Exchange rates: nairas (NGN) per US dollar - 117.8 (2008 est.), 127.46 (2007), 127.38 (2006), 132.59 (2005), 132.89 (2004)
Fiscal year: calendar year
^Back to Top
Communications
Telephones in use: 1.58 million (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 40.395 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed
domestic: the addition of a second fixed-line provider in 2002 resulted in faster growth but subscribership remains only about 1 per 100 persons; wireless telephony has grown rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple service providers operate nationally; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 30 per 100 persons in 2007
international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 83, FM 36, shortwave 11 (2001)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (the government controls 2 of the broadcasting stations and 15 repeater stations) (2001)
Internet country code: .ng
Internet hosts: 1,048 (2008)
Internet users: 10 million (2007)
^Back to Top
Transportation
Airports: 70 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 36
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 34
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 19 (2007)
Heliports: 2 (2007)
Pipelines: condensate 124 km; gas 3,071 km; liquid petroleum gas 156 km; oil 4,347 km; refined products 3,949 km (2007)
Railways: total: 3,505 km
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)
Roadways: total: 193,200 km
paved: 28,980 km
unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)
Waterways: 8,600 km (Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2008)
Merchant marine: total: 68
by type: cargo 4, chemical tanker 12, combination ore/oil 1, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 46, specialized tanker 2
foreign-owned: 3 (Japan 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 34 (Bahamas 2, Bermuda 11, Cook Islands 1, Georgia 1, Italy 1, Liberia 2, Panama 10, Poland 1, Seychelles 1, Sierra Leone 1, unknown 3) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos
^Back to Top
Military

Military branches: Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service (2007)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 31,929,204
females age 16-49: 30,638,979 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 18,556,755
females age 16-49: 17,288,225 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Nigeria(NİJERYA)   Bugün 9:56 pm

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