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 Nauru(NAURU)

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MesajKonu: Nauru(NAURU)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:17 am

The exact origins of the Nauruans are unclear, since their language does not resemble any other in the Pacific. The island was annexed by Germany in 1888 and its phosphate deposits began to be mined early in the 20th century by a German-British consortium. Nauru was occupied by Australian forces in World War I and subsequently became a League of Nations mandate. After the Second World War - and a brutal occupation by Japan - Nauru became a UN trust territory. It achieved its independence in 1968 and joined the UN in 1999 as the world's smallest independent republic.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Nauru(NAURU)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:17 am

Geography
Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator.
Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the Marshall Islands
Geographic coordinates: 0 32 S, 166 55 E
Area: total: 21 sq km
land: 21 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Size comparison: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 30 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical with a monsoonal pattern; rainy season (November to February)
Terrain: sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with phosphate plateau in center
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location along plateau rim 61 m
Natural resources: phosphates, fish
Land use: arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: periodic droughts
Current Environment Issues: limited natural fresh water resources, roof storage tanks collect rainwater, but mostly dependent on a single, aging desalination plant; intensive phosphate mining during the past 90 years - mainly by a UK, Australia, and NZ consortium - has left the central 90% of Nauru a wasteland and threatens limited remaining land resources
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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People
Population: 13,770 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 35.5% (male 2,492/female 2,393)
15-64 years: 62.5% (male 4,237/female 4,363)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 148/female 137) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 21.3 years
male: 20.7 years
female: 21.9 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.772% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 24.26 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 6.54 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: NA (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.08 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 9.43 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11.84 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.81 years
male: 60.2 years
female: 67.6 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.94 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Nauruan(s)
adjective: Nauruan
Ethnic groups: Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%, European 8%
Religions: Nauru Congregational 35.4%, Roman Catholic 33.2%, Nauru Independent Church 10.4%, other 14.1%, none 4.5%, unspecified 2.4% (2002 census)
Languages: Nauruan (official; a distinct Pacific Island language), English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes
Literacy: NA
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Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Nauru
conventional short form: Nauru
local long form: Republic of Nauru
local short form: Nauru
former: Pleasant Island
Government type: republic
Capital: no official capital; government offices in Yaren District
time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare, Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren
Independence: 31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, NZ-, and UK-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Independence Day, 31 January (1968)
Constitution: 29 January 1968; amended 17 May 1968 (Constitution Day)
Legal system: acts of the Nauru Parliament and British common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Marcus STEPHEN (since 19 December 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Marcus STEPHEN (since 19 December 2007); note - President Ludwig SCOTTY defeated in a no confidence vote in parliament on 19 December 2007
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a three-year term; election last held 19 December 2007 (next to be held in 2010)
election results: NA
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 26 April 2008 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 18; note - President Marcus STEPHEN called a snap election to break a parliamentary stalemate blocking legislative action
Judicial branch: Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party [Kennan ADEANG]; Nauru Party (informal); Nauru First (Naoero Amo) Party; note - loose multiparty system
Political pressure groups and leaders: Woman Information and News Agency (women's issues)
International organization participation: ACP, ADB, C, FAO, ICAO, ICCt, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Marlene I. MOSES
chancery: 800 2nd Avenue, Suite 400 D, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 937-0074
FAX: [1] (212) 937-0079
consulate(s): Agana (Guam)
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Nauru; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Nauru
Executive branch: chief of state: President Marcus STEPHEN (since 19 December 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Marcus STEPHEN (since 19 December 2007); note - President Ludwig SCOTTY defeated in a no confidence vote in parliament on 19 December 2007 cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of Parliament elections: president elected by Parliament for a three-year term; election last held 19 December 2007 (next to be held in 2010) election results: NA
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MesajKonu: Geri: Nauru(NAURU)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:18 am

Economy
Revenues of this tiny island have traditionally come from exports of phosphates, now significantly depleted. An Australian company in 2005 entered into an agreement intended to exploit remaining supplies. Few other resources exist with most necessities being imported, mainly from Australia, its former occupier and later major source of support. The rehabilitation of mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are serious long-term problems. Reserves of phosphates may only last until 2010 at current mining rates. In anticipation of the exhaustion of Nauru's phosphate deposits, substantial amounts of phosphate income were invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition and provide for Nauru's economic future. As a result of heavy spending from the trust funds, the government faces virtual bankruptcy. To cut costs the government has frozen wages and reduced overstaffed public service departments. Nauru lost further revenue in 2008 with the closure of Australia's refugee processing center, making it almost totally dependent on food imports and foreign aid. Housing, hospitals, and other capital plant is deteriorating, and the cost to Australia of keeping the government and economy afloat continues to climb. Few comprehensive statistics on the Nauru economy exist, with estimates of Nauru's GDP varying widely.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $60 million (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $NA
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,000 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Labor force:
Labor force - by occupation: note: employed in mining phosphates, public administration, education, and transportation (1992)
Unemployment rate: 90% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): -3.6% (1993)
Budget: revenues: $13.5 million
expenditures: $13.5 million (2005)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: phosphate mining, offshore banking, coconut products
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 31 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 28.83 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 1,070 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 1,049 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Exports: $64,000 f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: phosphates
Imports: $20 million c.i.f. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities: food, fuel, manufactures, building materials, machinery
Debt - external: $33.3 million (2002)
Currency (code): Australian dollar (AUD)
Exchange rates: Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar - 1.2059 (2008 est.), 1.2137 (2007), 1.3285 (2006), 1.3095 (2005), 1.3598 (2004)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
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Communications
Telephones in use: 1,900 (2002)
Cellular Phones in use: 1,500 (2002)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate local and international radiotelephone communication provided via Australian facilities
domestic: NA
international: country code - 674; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)
Internet country code: .nr
Internet hosts: 42 (2008)
Internet users: 300 (2002)
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Transportation
Airports: 1 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Roadways: total: 24 km
paved: 24 km (2002)
Ports and terminals: Nauru
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Military
Nauru maintains no defense forces; under an informal agreement, defense is the responsibility of Australia
Military branches: no regular military forces; Nauru Police Force (2009)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 3,470 (2008 est.)
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