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 Niue(NİUE)

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MesajKonu: Niue(NİUE)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:20 am

Niue's remoteness, as well as cultural and linguistic differences between its Polynesian inhabitants and those of the rest of the Cook Islands, have caused it to be separately administered. The population of the island continues to drop (from a peak of 5,200 in 1966 to an estimated 1,444 in 2008), with substantial emigration to New Zealand, 2,400 km to the southwest.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Niue(NİUE)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:20 am

Geography
One of world's largest coral islands.
Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga
Geographic coordinates: 19 02 S, 169 52 W
Area: total: 260 sq km
land: 260 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Size comparison: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 64 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds
Terrain: steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location near Mutalau settlement 68 m
Natural resources: fish, arable land
Land use: arable land: 11.54%
permanent crops: 15.38%
other: 73.08% (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: typhoons
Current Environment Issues: increasing attention to conservationist practices to counter loss of soil fertility from traditional slash and burn agriculture
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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People
Population: 1,444 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA
Median age:
Population growth rate: -0.032% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: NA (2008 est.)
Death rate: NA (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: NA (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: NA
Infant mortality rate: total: NA
male: NA
female: NA (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: NA (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Niuean(s)
adjective: Niuean
Ethnic groups: Niuen 78.2%, Pacific islander 10.2%, European 4.5%, mixed 3.9%, Asian 0.2%, unspecified 3% (2001 census)
Religions: Ekalesia Niue (Niuean Church - a Protestant church closely related to the London Missionary Society) 61.1%, Latter-Day Saints 8.8%, Roman Catholic 7.2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%, other 8.4%, unspecified 8.7%, none 1.9% (2001 census)
Languages: Niuean, a Polynesian language closely related to Tongan and Samoan; English
Literacy: definition: NA
total population: 95%
male: NA
female: NA
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Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Niue
note: pronounciation falls between nyu-way and new-way, but not like new-wee
former: Savage Island
Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Alofi
geographic coordinates: 19 01 S, 169 55 W
time difference: UTC-11 (6 hours behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: none; note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 14 villages at the second order
Independence: on 19 October 1974, Niue became a self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand
National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)
Constitution: 19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)
Legal system: English common law; note - Niue is self-governing, with the power to make its own laws
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General of New Zealand Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006); the UK and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner John BRYAN (since May 2000)
head of government: Premier Toke TALAGI (since 18 June 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of the premier and three ministers
elections: the monarch is hereditary; premier elected by the Legislative Assembly for a three-year term; election last held 18 June 2008 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: Toke TALAGI defeats incumbent Young VIVIAN in Legislative Assembly vote; Toke TALAGI - 14, Young VIVIAN - 5
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (20 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; six elected from a common roll and 14 are village representatives)
elections: last held 7 June 2008 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - 20 independents
Judicial branch: Supreme Court of New Zealand; High Court of Niue
Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Independents or AI; Niue People's Action Party or NPP [Young VIVIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ACP, FAO, IFAD, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General of New Zealand Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006); the UK and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner John BRYAN (since May 2000) head of government: Premier Toke TALAGI (since 18 June 2008) cabinet: Cabinet consists of the premier and three ministers elections: the monarch is hereditary; premier elected by the Legislative Assembly for a three-year term; election last held 18 June 2008 (next to be held in 2011) election results: Toke TALAGI defeats incumbent Young VIVIAN in Legislative Assembly vote; Toke TALAGI - 14, Young VIVIAN - 5
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MesajKonu: Geri: Niue(NİUE)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:21 am

Economy
The economy suffers from the typical Pacific island problems of geographic isolation, few resources, and a small population. Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, and the shortfall is made up by critically needed grants from New Zealand that are used to pay wages to public employees. Niue has cut government expenditures by reducing the public service by almost half. The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some cash crops are grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small factories to process passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of revenue. The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of population because of emigration to New Zealand. Efforts to increase GDP include the promotion of tourism and a financial services industry, although the International Banking Repeal Act of 2002 resulted in the termination of all offshore banking licenses. Economic aid from New Zealand in 2002 was US$2.6 million. Niue suffered a devastating typhoon in January 2004, which decimated nascent economic programs. While in the process of rebuilding, Niue has been dependent on foreign aid.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $7.6 million (2000 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $10.01 million (2003)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.2% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,800 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 23.5%
industry: 26.9%
services: 49.5% (2003)
Labor force: 663 (2001)
Labor force - by occupation: note: most work on family plantations; paid work exists only in government service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board
Unemployment rate: 12% (2001)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2005)
Budget: revenues: $15.07 million
expenditures: $16.33 million (FY0405)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: tourism, handicrafts, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 4 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 3.72 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 20 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 26.57 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Exports: $201,400 (2004)
Exports - commodities: canned coconut cream, copra, honey, vanilla, passion fruit products, pawpaws, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts
Imports: $9.038 million (2004)
Imports - commodities: food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals, drugs
Debt - external: $418,000 (2002 est.)
Currency (code): New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZD) per US dollar - 1.4151 (2008 est.), 1.3811 (2007), 1.5408 (2006), 1.4203 (2005), 1.5087 (2004)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
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Communications
Telephones in use: 1,100 (2002 est.)
Cellular Phones in use: 400 (2002)
Telephone system: domestic: single-line telephone system connects all villages on island
international: country code - 683 (2001)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)
Internet country code: .nu
Internet hosts: 382,599 (2008)
Internet users: 900 (2002)
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Transportation
Airports: 1 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Roadways: total: 120 km
paved: 120 km (2008)
Ports and terminals: none; offshore anchorage only
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Military
Defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
Military branches: no regular indigenous military forces; Police Force
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MesajKonu: Geri: Niue(NİUE)   Bugün 9:51 am

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