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 Oman(UMMAN)

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MesajKonu: Oman(UMMAN)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:24 am

The inhabitants of the area of Oman have long prospered on Indian Ocean trade. In the late 18th century, a newly established sultanate in Muscat signed the first in a series of friendship treaties with Britain. Over time, Oman's dependence on British political and military advisors increased, but it never became a British colony. In 1970, QABOOS bin Said al-Said overthrew the restrictive rule of his father; he has ruled as sultan ever since. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world while preserving the longstanding close ties with the UK. Oman's moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with all Middle Eastern countries.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Oman(UMMAN)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:24 am

Geography
Strategic location on Musandam Peninsula adjacent to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil.
Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE
Geographic coordinates: 21 00 N, 57 00 E
Area: total: 212,460 sq km
land: 212,460 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land Boundaries: total: 1,374 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km
Coastline: 2,092 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
Terrain: central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal Shams 2,980 m
Natural resources: petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas
Land use: arable land: 0.12%
permanent crops: 0.14%
other: 99.74% (2005)
Irrigated land: 720 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior; periodic droughts
Current Environment Issues: rising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; limited natural fresh water resources
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
^Back to Top
People
Population: 3,311,640 note: includes 577,293 non-nationals (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.7% (male 721,796/female 692,699)
15-64 years: 54.5% (male 1,053,040/female 752,962)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 51,290/female 39,853) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 18.9 years
male: 21.3 years
female: 16.6 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.19% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 35.26 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 3.68 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.4 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.29 male(s)/female
total population: 1.23 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 17.45 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 19.95 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.91 years
male: 71.64 years
female: 76.29 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.62 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,300 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Omani(s)
adjective: Omani
Ethnic groups: Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African
Religions: Ibadhi Muslim 75%, other (includes Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu) 25%
Languages: Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Literacy: definition: NA
total population: 81.4%
male: 86.8%
female: 73.5% (2003 census)
^Back to Top
Government
Country name: conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman
conventional short form: Oman
local long form: Saltanat Uman
local short form: Uman
former: Muscat and Oman
Government type: monarchy
Capital: name: Muscat
geographic coordinates: 23 37 N, 58 35 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 5 regions (manatiq, singular - mintaqat) and 4 governorates* (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat) Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Batinah, Al Buraymi*, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah, Az Zahirah, Masqat (Muscat)*, Musandam*, Zufar (Dhofar)*
Independence: 1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
National holiday: Birthday of Sultan QABOOS, 18 November (1940)
Constitution: none; note - on 6 November 1996, Sultan QABOOS issued a royal decree promulgating a basic law considered by the government to be a constitution which, among other things, clarifies the royal succession, provides for a prime minister, bars ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the government, establishes a bicameral legislature, and guarantees basic civil liberties for Omani citizens
Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the monarch; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal; note - members of the military and security forces are not allowed to vote
Executive branch: chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
elections: the monarch is hereditary
Legislative branch: bicameral Majlis Oman consists of Majlis al-Dawla or upper chamber (70 seats; members appointed by the monarch; has advisory powers only) and Majlis al-Shura or lower chamber (84 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; body has only advisory powers)
elections: last held 27 October 2007 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: new candidates won 46 seats and 38 members of the outgoing Majlis kept their positions; none of the 20 female candidates were elected
Judicial branch: Supreme Court
note: the nascent civil court system, administered by region, has judges who practice secular and Sharia law
Political parties and leaders: none
Political pressure groups and leaders: none
International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hunaina bint Sultan bin Ahmad al-MUGHAIRI
chancery: 2535 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-1980
FAX: [1] (202) 745-4933
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gary A. GRAPPO
embassy: Jameat A'Duwal Al Arabiya Street, Al Khuwair area, Muscat
mailing address: P. O. Box 202, P.C. 115, Madinat Sultan Qaboos, Muscat
telephone: [968] 24-643-400
FAX: [968] 24-699771
Executive branch: chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch elections: the monarch is hereditary
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MesajKonu: Geri: Oman(UMMAN)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:24 am

Economy
Oman is a middle-income economy that is heavily dependent on dwindling oil resources, but sustained high oil prices in recent years have helped build Oman's budget and trade surpluses and foreign reserves. As a result of its dwindling oil resources, Oman is actively pursuing a development plan that focuses on diversification, industrialization, and privatization, with the objective of reducing the oil sector's contribution to GDP to 9% by 2020, but many of these projects are in jeopardy because Muscat overestimated its ability to produce the natural gas on which much of its development projects are based. Oman actively seeks private foreign investors, especially in the industrial, information technology, tourism, and higher education fields. Industrial development plans focus on gas resources, metal manufacturing, petrochemicals, and international transshipment ports. High inflation levels have also been a threat to continued high levels of economic growth, but the drop in oil prices and the global financial crisis in 2008 also will affect Oman's fiscal position and it may post a deficit in 2009 if oil prices stay low. In addition, the global credit crisis is slowing the pace of investment and development projects-a trend that probably will continue into 2009.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $67.45 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $56.32 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.2% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $20,400 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2.1%
industry: 37.2%
services: 60.7% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 920,000 (2002 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate: 15% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13.5% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 17.9% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $18.41 billion
expenditures: $14.74 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt: 2.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural and liquefied natural gas (LNG) production; construction, cement, copper, steel, chemicals, optic fiber
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 13.58 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 10.53 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 714,300 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 69,100 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 722,000 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 15,440 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 5.5 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 24.1 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 11 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 13.1 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 849.5 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance: $11.2 billion (2008 est.)
Exports: $33.9 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum, reexports, fish, metals, textiles
Exports - partners: China 26.8%, South Korea 15.2%, Japan 14.3%, Thailand 10.4%, UAE 7.6%, US 4.3%, Iran 4.1% (2007)
Imports: $13.32 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants
Imports - partners: UAE 19.3%, Japan 17.6%, US 7.4%, Germany 5.2%, India 4.1% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $11.11 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $6.12 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $23.06 billion (31 December 2007)
Currency (code): Omani rial (OMR)
Exchange rates: Omani rials (OMR) per US dollar - 0.3845 (2008 est.), 0.3845 (2007), 0.3845 (2006), 0.3845 (2005), 0.3845 (2004)
Fiscal year: calendar year
^Back to Top
Communications
Telephones in use: 268,100 (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 2.5 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable
domestic: fixed-line phone service gradually being introduced to remote villages using wireless local loop systems; fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership both increasing; open-wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations
international: country code - 968; the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
Television broadcast stations: 13 (plus 25 repeaters) (1999)
Internet country code: .om
Internet hosts: 4,785 (2008)
Internet users: 340,000 (2007)
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Transportation
Airports: 137 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 7
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 130
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 34 (2007)
Heliports: 2 (2007)
Pipelines: gas 4,126 km; oil 3,558 km (2007)
Roadways: total: 42,300 km
paved: 16,500 km (includes 550 km of expressways)
unpaved: 25,800 km (2005)
Merchant marine: total: 3
by type: chemical tanker 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1
registered in other countries: 2 (Panama 2) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Mina' Qabus, Salalah
^Back to Top
Military

Military branches: Sultan's Armed Forces (SAF): Royal Army of Oman, Royal Navy of Oman, Royal Air Force of Oman (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 802,455
females age 16-49: 626,841 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 663,881
females age 16-49: 543,410 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Oman(UMMAN)   Bugün 7:48 pm

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