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 Puerto Rico(PORTORİKO)

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MesajKonu: Puerto Rico(PORTORİKO)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:34 am

Populated for centuries by aboriginal peoples, the island was claimed by the Spanish Crown in 1493 following COLUMBUS' second voyage to the Americas. In 1898, after 400 years of colonial rule that saw the indigenous population nearly exterminated and African slave labor introduced, Puerto Rico was ceded to the US as a result of the Spanish-American War. Puerto Ricans were granted US citizenship in 1917. Popularly-elected governors have served since 1948. In 1952, a constitution was enacted providing for internal self government. In plebiscites held in 1967, 1993, and 1998, voters chose not to alter the existing political status.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Puerto Rico(PORTORİKO)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:35 am

Geography
Important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north.
Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic
Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 66 30 W
Area: total: 13,790 sq km
land: 8,870 sq km
water: 4,921 sq km
Size comparison: slightly less than three times the size of Rhode Island

Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 501 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north; mountains precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal areas
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Cerro de Punta 1,339 m
Natural resources: some copper and nickel; potential for onshore and offshore oil
Land use: arable land: 3.69%
permanent crops: 5.59%
other: 90.72% (2005)
Irrigated land: 400 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; hurricanes
Current Environment Issues: erosion; occasional drought causing water shortages
^Back to Top
People
Population: 3,958,128 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 20.5% (male 415,141/female 396,782)
15-64 years: 66% (male 1,254,416/female 1,358,229)
65 years and over: 13.5% (male 229,727/female 303,833) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 35.6 years
male: 33.8 years
female: 37.3 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.369% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 12.61 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 7.88 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 8.65 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.15 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.58 years
male: 74.64 years
female: 82.73 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 7,397 (1997)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens)
adjective: Puerto Rican
Ethnic groups: white (mostly Spanish origin) 80.5%, black 8%, Amerindian 0.4%, Asian 0.2%, mixed 4.2%, other 6.7% (2000 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant and other 15%
Languages: Spanish, English
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.1%
male: 93.9%
female: 94.4% (2002 est.)
^Back to Top
Government
Country name: conventional long form: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
conventional short form: Puerto Rico
Government type: commonwealth
Capital: name: San Juan
geographic coordinates: 18 28 N, 66 07 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US with commonwealth status); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 78 municipalities (municipios, singular - municipio) at the second order; Adjuntas, Aguada, Aguadilla, Aguas Buenas, Aibonito, Anasco, Arecibo, Arroyo, Barceloneta, Barranquitas, Bayamon, Cabo Rojo, Caguas, Camuy, Canovanas, Carolina, Catano, Cayey, Ceiba, Ciales, Cidra, Coamo, Comerio, Corozal, Culebra, Dorado, Fajardo, Florida, Guanica, Guayama, Guayanilla, Guaynabo, Gurabo, Hatillo, Hormigueros, Humacao, Isabela, Jayuya, Juana Diaz, Juncos, Lajas, Lares, Las Marias, Las Piedras, Loiza, Luquillo, Manati, Maricao, Maunabo, Mayaguez, Moca, Morovis, Naguabo, Naranjito, Orocovis, Patillas, Penuelas, Ponce, Quebradillas, Rincon, Rio Grande, Sabana Grande, Salinas, San German, San Juan, San Lorenzo, San Sebastian, Santa Isabel, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Trujillo Alto, Utuado, Vega Alta, Vega Baja, Vieques, Villalba, Yabucoa, Yauco
Independence: none (territory of the US with commonwealth status)
National holiday: US Independence Day, 4 July (1776); Puerto Rico Constitution Day, 25 July (1952)
Constitution: ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective 25 July 1952
Legal system: based on Spanish civil code and within the US Federal system of justice
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; island residents are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch: chief of state: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009)
head of government: Governor Luis FORTUNO (since 2 January 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor with the consent of the legislature
elections: under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Puerto Rico, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor elected by popular vote for a four-year term (no term limits); election last held 4 November 2008 (next to be held in November 2012)
election results: Luis FORTUNO elected governor with 52.8% of the vote
Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of the Senate (at least 27 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives (51 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 4 November 2008 (next to be held November 2012); House of Representatives - last held 4 November 2008 (next to be held in November 2012)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PNP 81.5%, PPD 18.5%; seats by party - PNP 22, PPD 5; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PNP 72.5%, PPD 27.5%; seats by party - PNP 37, PPD 14
note: Puerto Rico elects, by popular vote, a resident commissioner to serve a four-year term as a nonvoting representative in the US House of Representatives; aside from not voting on the House floor, he enjoys all the rights of a member of Congress; elections last held 4 November 2008 (next to be held in November 2012); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PNP 1
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Appellate Court; Court of First Instance composed of two sections: a Superior Court and a Municipal Court (justices for all these courts appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate)
Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party [Roberto PRATS]; National Republican Party of Puerto Rico [Dr. Tiody FERRE]; New Progressive Party or PNP [Pedro ROSSELLO] (pro-US statehood); Popular Democratic Party or PPD [Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA] (pro-commonwealth); Puerto Rican Independence Party or PIP [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez] (pro-independence)
Political pressure groups and leaders: Boricua Popular Army or EPB (a revolutionary group also known as Los Macheteros); note - the following radical groups are considered dormant by Federal law enforcement: Armed Forces for National Liberation or FALN, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance, Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution
International organization participation: Caricom (observer), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ITUC, UNWTO (associate), UPU, WCL, WFTU
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US with commonwealth status)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US with commonwealth status)
Executive branch: chief of state: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009) head of government: Governor Luis FORTUNO (since 2 January 2009) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor with the consent of the legislature elections: under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Puerto Rico, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor elected by popular vote for a four-year term (no term limits); election last held 4 November 2008 (next to be held in November 2012) election results: Luis FORTUNO elected governor with 52.8% of the vote
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MesajKonu: Geri: Puerto Rico(PORTORİKO)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:35 am

Economy
Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the Caribbean region. A diverse industrial sector has far surpassed agriculture as the primary locus of economic activity and income. Encouraged by duty-free access to the US and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico since the 1950s. US minimum wage laws apply. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and other livestock products as the main source of income in the agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important source of income, with estimated arrivals of nearly 5 million tourists in 2004. Growth fell off in 2001-03, largely due to the slowdown in the US economy, recovered in 2004-05, but declined again in 2006-07.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $74.15 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $NA (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -2% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $18,700 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1%
industry: 45%
services: 54% (2002 est.)
Labor force: 1.3 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 2.1%
industry: 19%
services: 79% (2005)
Unemployment rate: 12% (2002)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (2003 est.)
Budget: revenues: $6.7 billion
expenditures: $9.6 billion (FY99/00)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 23.84 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 22.17 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 1,354 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 215,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - exports: 10,610 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 230,700 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 736.2 million cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 736.2 million cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Exports: $46.9 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities: chemicals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum, beverage concentrates, medical equipment
Imports: $29.1 billion c.i.f. (2001)
Imports - commodities: chemicals, machinery and equipment, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products
Debt - external: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Currency (code): US dollar (USD)
Exchange rates: the US dollar is used
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
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Communications
Telephones in use: 1.038 million (2005)
Cellular Phones in use: 3.354 million (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system integrated with that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data capability
domestic: digital telephone system; cellular telephone service
international: country code - 1-787, 939; submarine cables provide connectivity to the US, Caribbean, Central and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
Radio broadcast stations: AM 74, FM 53, shortwave 0 (2005)
Television broadcast stations: 32 (2006)
Internet country code: .pr
Internet hosts: 404 (2008)
Internet users: 1 million (2007)
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Transportation
Airports: 29 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 17
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 5 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 10 (2007)
Railways: total: 96 km
narrow gauge: 96 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways: total: 26,186 km
paved: 24,877 km (includes 427 km of expressways)
unpaved: 1,309 km (2007)
Merchant marine: total: 3
by type: roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned: 3 (US 3)
registered in other countries: 1 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Guayanilla, Mayaguez, San Juan
^Back to Top
Military
Defense is the responsibility of the US
Military branches: no regular indigenous military forces; paramilitary National Guard, Police Force
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MesajKonu: Geri: Puerto Rico(PORTORİKO)   Bugün 9:54 pm

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