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 Portugal(PORTEKİZ)

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MesajKonu: Portugal(PORTEKİZ)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:38 am

Following its heyday as a world power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence in 1822 of Brazil as a colony. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Portugal(PORTEKİZ)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:38 am

Geography
Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar.
Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
Geographic coordinates: 39 30 N, 8 00 W
Area: total: 92,391 sq km
land: 91,951 sq km
water: 440 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands
Size comparison: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land Boundaries: total: 1,214 km
border countries: Spain 1,214 km
Coastline: 1,793 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m
Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 17.29%
permanent crops: 7.84%
other: 74.87% (2005)
Irrigated land: 6,500 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: Azores subject to severe earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification
^Back to Top
People
Population: 10,676,910 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.4% (male 912,995/female 835,715)
15-64 years: 66.2% (male 3,514,905/female 3,555,097)
65 years and over: 17.4% (male 764,443/female 1,093,755) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 39.1 years
male: 37 years
female: 41.3 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.305% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 10.45 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 10.62 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: 3.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.85 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.31 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.04 years
male: 74.78 years
female: 81.53 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.49 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 22,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 1,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese
Ethnic groups: homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal
Religions: Roman Catholic 84.5%, other Christian 2.2%, other 0.3%, unknown 9%, none 3.9% (2001 census)
Languages: Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official - but locally used)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.3%
male: 95.5%
female: 91.3% (2003 est.)
^Back to Top
Government
Country name: conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal
Government type: republic; parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Lisbon
geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
Independence: 1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)
National holiday: Portugal Day (Day of Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died
Constitution: adopted 2 April 1976; note - subsequent revisions of the Constitution placed the military under strict civilian control, trimmed the powers of the president, and laid the groundwork for a stable, pluralistic liberal democracy; as well, they allowed for the privatization of nationalized firms and the government-owned communications media
Legal system: based on civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 March 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa (since 12 March 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Anibal CAVACO SILVA elected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO SILVA 50.6%, Manuel ALEGRE 20.7%, Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES 14.3%, Jeronimo DE SOUSA 8.5%, Franciso LOUCA 5.3%
Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 February 2005 (next to be held in Fall 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - PS 45.1%, PSD 28.7%, CDU 7.6%, CDS/PP 7.3%, BE 6.4%, other 4.9%; seats by party - PS 121, PSD 75, CDU 14, CDS/PP 12, BE 8
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura)
Political parties and leaders: Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Green Ecologist Party (The Greens) or PEV [leadership commission elected by members]; Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Manuela FERREIRA LEITE]; The Left Bloc or BE [Franciso Anacleto LOUCA]; Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes PCP and PEV)
Political pressure groups and leaders: the media
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional members), AfDB (nonregional members), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURCAT, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIT, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joao DE VALLERA
chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 350-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), San Francisco
consulate(s): New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas F. STEPHENSON
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon
mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)
Executive branch: chief of state: President Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 March 2006) head of government: Prime Minister Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa (since 12 March 2005) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president election results: Anibal CAVACO SILVA elected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO SILVA 50.6%, Manuel ALEGRE 20.7%, Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES 14.3%, Jeronimo DE SOUSA 8.5%, Franciso LOUCA 5.3%
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MesajKonu: Geri: Portugal(PORTEKİZ)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:38 am

Economy
Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community in 1986. Over the past two decades, successive governments have privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU member economies. Economic growth had been above the EU average for much of the 1990s, but fell back in 2001-08. GDP per capita stands at roughly two-thirds of the EU-27 average. A poor educational system, in particular, has been an obstacle to greater productivity and growth. Portugal has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a target for foreign direct investment. The budget deficit surged to an all-time high of 6% of GDP in 2005, but the government reduced the deficit to 2.6% in 2007 - a year ahead of Portugal's targeted schedule. Nonetheless, the government faces tough choices in its attempts to boost the economy, which grew by 0.9% in 2008, while keeping the budget deficit within the eurozone's 3%-of-GDP ceiling.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $245 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $255.5 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.9% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $22,000 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3%
industry: 25.6%
services: 71.5% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 5.64 million (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 10%
industry: 30%
services: 60% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7.6% (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line: 18% (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 38.5 (2007)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 21.9% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $108.6 billion
expenditures: $114.7 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt: 64.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper, chemicals, auto-parts manufacturing, base metals, diary products, wine and other foods, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 44.83 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 48.02 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 1.906 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 8,371 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 6,281 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 301,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - exports: 50,490 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 390,300 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: NA bbl
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 4.112 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 4.095 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: -$23.97 billion (2008 est.)
Exports: $57.8 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: agricultural products, food products, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, skins and leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, minerals and mineral products, base metals, machinery and tools, vehicles and other transport material, and optical and precision
Exports - partners: Spain 27.1%, Germany 12.9%, France 12.3%, UK 5.9%, US 4.8%, Angola 4.5%, Italy 4% (2007)
Imports: $87.92 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: agricultural products, food products, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, skins and leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, minerals and mineral products, base metals, machinery and tools, vehicles and other transport material, and optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semi-conductors and related devices, household goods, passenger cars new and used, and wine products
Imports - partners: Spain 29.5%, Germany 12.9%, France 8.4%, Italy 5.2%, Netherlands 4.6% (2007)
Economic aid - donor: ODA, $396 million (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $11.55 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external: $461.2 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $118.1 billion (2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $69.24 billion (2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $132.3 billion (31 December 2007)
Currency (code): euro (EUR)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6734 (2008 est.), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004)
Fiscal year: calendar year
^Back to Top
Communications
Telephones in use: 4.139 million (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 13.413 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has achieved a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities
domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations
international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (1998)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 47, FM 172 (many are repeaters), shortwave 2 (1998)
Television broadcast stations: 62 (plus 166 repeaters; includes Azores and Madeira Islands) (1995)
Internet country code: .pt
Internet hosts: 1.858 million (2008)
Internet users: 3.549 million (2007)
^Back to Top
Transportation
Airports: 66 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 44
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 12 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 21 (2007)
Pipelines: gas 1,098 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2007)
Railways: total: 2,786 km
broad gauge: 2,603 km 1.668-m gauge (1,351 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 183 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways: total: 82,900 km
paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,300 km of expressways)
unpaved: 11,606 km (2005)
Waterways: 210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2008)
Merchant marine: total: 117
by type: bulk carrier 10, cargo 36, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, container 6, liquefied gas 9, passenger 10, passenger/cargo 9, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 15
foreign-owned: 84 (Bahamas 1, Belgium 7, Belgium 1, Denmark 3, Germany 20, Greece 4, Hong Kong 2, Italy 12, Japan 15, Mexico 1, Netherlands 1, Spain 11, Sweden 3, Switzerland 2, US 1)
registered in other countries: 15 (Cyprus 1, Hong Kong 1, Italy 1, Malta 3, Panama 9) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines
^Back to Top
Military

Military branches: Portuguese Army (Exercito Portugues), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; compulsory military service ended in 2004; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2007)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,573,913
females age 16-49: 2,498,262 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 2,099,647
females age 16-49: 2,060,559 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Portugal(PORTEKİZ)   Bugün 4:21 pm

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