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 Paraguay(PARAGUAY)

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MesajKonu: Paraguay(PARAGUAY)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:40 am

In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70) - between Paraguay and Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay - Paraguay lost two-thirds of all adult males and much of its territory. It stagnated economically for the next half century. In the Chaco War of 1932-35, Paraguay won large, economically important areas from Bolivia. The 35-year military dictatorship of Alfredo STROESSNER ended in 1989, and, despite a marked increase in political infighting in recent years, Paraguay has held relatively free and regular presidential elections since then.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Paraguay(PARAGUAY)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:41 am

Geography
Landlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil; population concentrated in southern part of country.
Location: Central South America, northeast of Argentina
Geographic coordinates: 23 00 S, 58 00 W
Area: total: 406,750 sq km
land: 397,300 sq km
water: 9,450 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than California

Land Boundaries: total: 3,995 km
border countries: Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,365 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west
Terrain: grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere
Elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m
highest point: Cerro Pero (Cerro Tres Kandu) 842 m
Natural resources: hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone
Land use: arable land: 7.47%
permanent crops: 0.24%
other: 92.29% (2005)
Irrigated land: 670 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: local flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; water pollution; inadequate means for waste disposal pose health risks for many urban residents; loss of wetlands
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
^Back to Top
People
Population: 6,831,306 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 36.9% (male 1,283,311/female 1,240,769)
15-64 years: 57.9% (male 1,988,256/female 1,968,869)
65 years and over: 5.1% (male 161,811/female 188,290) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 21.7 years
male: 21.5 years
female: 22 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.39% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 28.47 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 4.49 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 25.55 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 29.74 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 21.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.56 years
male: 72.99 years
female: 78.26 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.5% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 15,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 600 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Paraguayan(s)
adjective: Paraguayan
Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%, other 5%
Religions: Roman Catholic 89.6%, Protestant 6.2%, other Christian 1.1%, other or unspecified 1.9%, none 1.1% (2002 census)
Languages: Spanish (official), Guarani (official)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94%
male: 94.9%
female: 93% (2003 est.)
^Back to Top
Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay
conventional short form: Paraguay
local long form: Republica del Paraguay
local short form: Paraguay
Government type: constitutional republic
Capital: name: Asuncion
geographic coordinates: 25 16 S, 57 40 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital city*; Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Asuncion*, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro
Independence: 14 May 1811 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 14 May 1811 (observed 15 May)
Constitution: promulgated 20 June 1992
Legal system: based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 75
Executive branch: chief of state: President Fernando Armindo LUGO Mendez (since 15 August 2008); Vice President Federico FRANCO (since 15 August 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Fernando Armindo LUGO Mendez (since 15 August 2008); Vice President Federico FRANCO (since 15 August 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 20 April 2008 (next to be held April 2013)
election results: Fernando Armindo LUGO Mendez elected president; percent of vote - Fernando Armindo LUGO Mendez 40.8%, Blanca OVELAR 30.6%, Lino OVIEDO 21.9%, Pedro FADUL 2.4%, other 4.3%
Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (45 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (80 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators - last held 20 April 2008 (next to be held in April 2013); Chamber of Deputies - last held 20 April 2008 (next to be held in April 2013)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANR 15, PLRA 14, UNACE 9, PPQ 4, other 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANR 30, PLRA 27, UNACE 15, PPQ 3, APC 2, other 3
Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (nine judges appointed on the proposal of the Council of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura)
Political parties and leaders: Alianza Patriotica por el Cambio (Patriotic Alliance for Change) or APC [Fernando LUGO]; Asociacion Nacional Republicana - Colorado Party or ANR [Lilian SAMANIEGO]; Movimiento Union Nacional de Ciudadanos Eticos or UNACE [Lino Cesar OVIEDO Silva]; Patria Querida (Beloved Fatherland Party) or PPQ [Pedro Nicolas Maraa FADUL Niella]; Partido del Movimiento al Socialismo or P-MAS; Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Emilio CAMACHO Paredes]; Partido Liberal Radical Autentico or PLRA [Gustavo CARDOZO]; Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Ahorristas Estafados or AE; National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations or MCNOC [Luis AGUAYO]; National Federation of Campesinos or FNC [Odilon ESPINOLA]; National Workers Central or CNT [Secretary General Juan TORRALES]; Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT; Roman Catholic Church; Unitary Workers Central or CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo]
International organization participation: CAN (associate), FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James SPALDING Hellmers
chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962
FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: Ambassador Liliana AYALDE
embassy: 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Casilla Postal 402, Asuncion
mailing address: Unit 4711, APO AA 34036-0001
telephone: [595] (21) 213-715
FAX: [595] (21) 228-603
Executive branch: chief of state: President Fernando Armindo LUGO Mendez (since 15 August 2008); Vice President Federico FRANCO (since 15 August 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Fernando Armindo LUGO Mendez (since 15 August 2008); Vice President Federico FRANCO (since 15 August 2008) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 20 April 2008 (next to be held April 2013) election results: Fernando Armindo LUGO Mendez elected president; percent of vote - Fernando Armindo LUGO Mendez 40.8%, Blanca OVELAR 30.6%, Lino OVIEDO 21.9%, Pedro FADUL 2.4%, other 4.3%
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MesajKonu: Geri: Paraguay(PARAGUAY)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:41 am

Economy
Landlocked Paraguay has a market economy marked by a large informal sector, featuring reexport of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries, as well as the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. A large percentage of the population, especially in rural areas, derives its living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. Because of the importance of the informal sector, accurate economic measures are difficult to obtain. On a per capita basis, real income has stagnated at 1980 levels. Most observers attribute Paraguay's poor economic performance to political uncertainty, corruption, limited progress on structural reform, and deficient infrastructure. The economy rebounded between 2003 and 2008, however, as growing world demand for commodities combined with high prices and favorable weather to support Paraguay's commodity-based export expansion. Paraguay is the sixth largest soy producer in the world.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $29.11 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $16.36 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.7% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $4,300 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 23.1%
industry: 17.2%
services: 59.6% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 2.839 million (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 31%
industry: 17%
services: 52% (2007)
Unemployment rate: 5.4% (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line: 32% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.7%
highest 10%: 46.1% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 56.8 (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 20.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $2.939 billion
expenditures: $2.866 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt: 22.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: sugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products, steel, metallurgic, electric power
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 70 billion kWh (2007)
Electricity - consumption: 6 billion kWh (2007)
Electricity - exports: 64 billion kWh (2007)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 27,410 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2007)
Oil - imports: 25,940 bbl/day (2007)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2007 est.)
Current account balance: $178 million (2008 est.)
Exports: $6.901 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: soybeans, feed, cotton, meat, edible oils, electricity, wood, leather
Exports - partners: Argentina 28.1%, Uruguay 15.2%, Brazil 12.7%, Chile 5.9%, Germany 4.9%, Russia 4.5% (2007)
Imports: $7.351 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: road vehicles, consumer goods, tobacco, petroleum products, electrical machinery, tractors, chemicals, vehicle parts
Imports - partners: Brazil 30.4%, US 22.8%, Argentina 14.4%, China 8.6% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.629 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $3.487 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $2.057 million (2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $233.8 million (2005)
Currency (code): guarani (PYG)
Exchange rates: guarani (PYG) per US dollar - 4,337.7 (2008 est.), 5,031 (2007), 5,672.8 (2006), 6,178 (2005), 5,974.6 (2004)
Fiscal year: calendar year
^Back to Top
Communications
Telephones in use: 453,800 (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 4.33 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: meager telephone service; principal switching center is in Asuncion
domestic: the fixed-line market is a state monopoly; deficiencies in provision of fixed-line service have resulted in a rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services fostered by competition among multiple providers
international: country code - 595; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 41, FM 121, shortwave 6 (3 inactive) (2006)
Television broadcast stations: 5 (2007)
Internet country code: .py
Internet hosts: 19,691 (2008)
Internet users: 280,000 (2007)
^Back to Top
Transportation
Airports: 838 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 13
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 825
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 267
under 914 m: 532 (2007)
Railways: total: 36 km
standard gauge: 36 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Roadways: total: 29,500 km
paved: 14,986 km
unpaved: 14,514 km (2000)
Waterways: 3,100 km (2008)
Merchant marine: total: 23
by type: cargo 18, carrier 1, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 6 (Argentina 5, Netherlands 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion
^Back to Top
Military

Military branches: Army, National Navy (Armada Nacional, includes Naval Aviation, Marine Corps, General Naval Prefecture), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Paraguay, FAP) (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months for Army, 24 months for Navy (2006)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,589,873
females age 16-49: 1,585,573 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,327,730
females age 16-49: 1,356,989 (2008 est.)
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