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 Qatar(KATAR)

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MesajKonu: Qatar(KATAR)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:42 am

Ruled by the al-Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Qatari economy was crippled by a continuous siphoning off of petroleum revenues by the Amir, who had ruled the country since 1972. His son, the current Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa al-Thani, overthrew him in a bloodless coup in 1995. In 2001, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. As of 2007, oil and natural gas revenues had enabled Qatar to attain the highest per capita income in the world.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Qatar(KATAR)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:42 am

Geography
Strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits.
Location: Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates: 25 30 N, 51 15 E
Area: total: 11,437 sq km
land: 11,437 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land Boundaries: total: 60 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 60 km
Coastline: 563 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median line
Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Qurayn Abu al Bawl 103 m
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish
Land use: arable land: 1.64%
permanent crops: 0.27%
other: 98.09% (2005)
Irrigated land: 130 sq km (2002)
Natural hazards: haze, dust storms, sandstorms common
Current Environment Issues: limited natural fresh water resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
^Back to Top
People
Population: 824,789 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 21.8% (male 92,896/female 87,201)
15-64 years: 76.8% (male 451,127/female 182,330)
65 years and over: 1.4% (male 6,545/female 4,690) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 30.7 years
male: 32.8 years
female: 25.4 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.093% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 15.69 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 2.47 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 2.47 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.4 male(s)/female
total population: 2.01 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 13.09 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.19 years
male: 73.5 years
female: 76.98 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.09% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Qatari(s)
adjective: Qatari
Ethnic groups: Arab 40%, Indian 18%, Pakistani 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%
Religions: Muslim 77.5%, Christian 8.5%, other 14% (2004 census)
Languages: Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89%
male: 89.1%
female: 88.6% (2004 census)
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Government
Country name: conventional long form: State of Qatar
conventional short form: Qatar
local long form: Dawlat Qatar
local short form: Qatar
note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation falls between cutter and gutter, but not like guitar
Government type: emirate
Capital: name: Doha
geographic coordinates: 25 17 N, 51 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Jarayan al Batinah, Madinat ash Shamal, Umm Sa'id, Umm Salal
Independence: 3 September 1971 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 3 September (1971); also observed is National Day, 18 December
Constitution: ratified by public referendum on 29 April 2003, endorsed by the Amir on 8 June 2004, effective on 9 June 2005
Legal system: based on Islamic and civil law codes; discretionary system of law controlled by the Amir, although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law dominates family and personal matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa al-Thani (since 27 June 1995 when, as heir apparent, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad al-Thani, in a bloodless coup); Heir Apparent TAMIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, fourth son of the monarch (selected Heir Apparent by the monarch on 5 August 2003); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of Minister of Defense and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces
head of government: Prime Minister HAMAD bin Jasim bin Jabir al-Thani (since 3 April 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Abdallah bin Hamad al-ATIYAH (since 3 April 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
elections: the monarch is hereditary
note: in April 2007, Qatar held nationwide elections for a 29-member Central Municipal Council (CMC), which has limited consultative powers aimed at improving the provision of municipal services; the first election for the CMC was held in March 1999
Legislative branch: unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (35 seats; members appointed)
note: no legislative elections have been held since 1970 when there were partial elections to the body; Council members have had their terms extended every year since the new constitution came into force on 9 June 2005; the constitution provides for a new 45-member Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura; the public would elect two-thirds of the Majlis al-Shura; the Amir would appoint the remaining members; preparations are underway to conduct elections to the Majlis al-Shura
Judicial branch: Courts of First Instance, Appeal, and Cassation; an Administrative Court and a Constitutional Court were established in 2007; note - all judges are appointed by Amiri Decree based on the recommendation of the Supreme Judiciary Council for renewable three-year terms
Political parties and leaders: none
Political pressure groups and leaders: none
International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AMF, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ali Fahad al-Shahwany al-HAJRI
chancery: 2555 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600 and 274-1603
FAX: [1] (202) 237-0061
consulate(s) general: Houston
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph E. LEBARON
embassy: Al-Luqta District, 22 February Road, Doha
mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha
telephone: [974] 488 4161
FAX: [974] 488 4150
Executive branch: chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa al-Thani (since 27 June 1995 when, as heir apparent, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad al-Thani, in a bloodless coup); Heir Apparent TAMIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, fourth son of the monarch (selected Heir Apparent by the monarch on 5 August 2003); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of Minister of Defense and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces head of government: Prime Minister HAMAD bin Jasim bin Jabir al-Thani (since 3 April 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Abdallah bin Hamad al-ATIYAH (since 3 April 2007) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch elections: the monarch is hereditary note: in April 2007, Qatar held nationwide elections for a 29-member Central Municipal Council (CMC), which has limited consultative powers aimed at improving the provision of municipal services; the first election for the CMC was held in March 1999
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MesajKonu: Geri: Qatar(KATAR)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:42 am

Economy
Qatar has experienced rapid economic growth over the last several years on the back of high oil prices, and in 2008 posted its eighth consecutive budget surplus. Economic policy is focused on developing Qatar's nonassociated natural gas reserves and increasing private and foreign investment in non-energy sectors, but oil and gas still account for more than 50% of GDP, roughly 85% of export earnings, and 70% of government revenues. Oil and gas have made Qatar the highest per-capita income country and one of the world's fastest growing. Proved oil reserves of 15 billion barrels should enable continued output at current levels for 37 years. Qatar's proved reserves of natural gas are nearly 26 trillion cubic meters, about 14% of the world total and third largest in the world. The drop in oil prices in late 2008 and the global financial crisis will reduce Qatar's budget surplus and may slow the pace of investment and development projects in 2009.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $83.29 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $116.9 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 11.8% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $101,000 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 79.4%
services: 20.5% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 1.124 million (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Unemployment rate: 0.6% (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.2% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 41.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $40.36 billion
expenditures: $28.08 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt: 6% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: crude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, commercial ship repair
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 14.41 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 13.19 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 1.125 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 108,900 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 1.026 million bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 15.21 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 59.8 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 20.5 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 39.3 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 25.63 trillion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance: $22.71 billion (2008 est.)
Exports: $62.44 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: liquefied natural gas (LNG), petroleum products, fertilizers, steel
Exports - partners: Japan 39.9%, South Korea 19.9%, Singapore 9.9%, India 5.1%, Thailand 4.9%, UAE 4% (2007)
Imports: $24.96 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, food, chemicals
Imports - partners: US 13.3%, Italy 10.8%, Japan 8.9%, France 7.9%, Germany 7.3%, UK 5.7%, South Korea 5.6%, UAE 5.1%, Saudi Arabia 4.3% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $16.81 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $48.91 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $3.627 billion (2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $9.143 billion (2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $95.49 billion (31 December 2007)
Currency (code): Qatari rial (QAR)
Exchange rates: Qatari rials (QAR) per US dollar - 3.64 (2008 est.), 3.64 (2007), 3.64 (2006), 3.64 (2005), 3.64 (2004)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
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Communications
Telephones in use: 237,400 (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 1.264 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system centered in Doha
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density is roughly 165 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 974; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and the US; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and the UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat
Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 3 repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code: .qa
Internet hosts: 563 (2008)
Internet users: 351,000 (2007)
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Transportation
Airports: 5 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 3
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Heliports: 1 (2007)
Pipelines: condensate 322 km; condensate/gas 209 km; gas 1,970 km; liquid petroleum gas 87 km; oil 741 km (2007)
Roadways: total: 7,790 km (2006)
Merchant marine: total: 22
by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 2, chemical tanker 2, container 8, liquefied gas 4, petroleum tanker 4
foreign-owned: 7 (Kuwait 7)
registered in other countries: 5 (Liberia 4, Panama 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Doha, Ra's Laffan
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Military

Military branches: Qatari Amiri Land Force (QALF), Qatari Amiri Navy (QAN), Qatari Amiri Air Force (QAAF) (2007)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 320,383
females age 16-49: 167,475 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 258,159
females age 16-49: 143,999 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Qatar(KATAR)   Bugün 9:55 pm

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