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 Serbia(SIRBİSTAN)

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MesajKonu: Serbia(SIRBİSTAN)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:44 am

The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Various paramilitary bands resisted Nazi Germany's occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945, but fought each other and ethnic opponents as much as the invaders. The military and political movement headed by Josip TITO (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when German and Croatian separatist forces were defeated in 1945. Although Communist, TITO's new government and his successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Serbian Republic and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions led to Yugoslavia being ousted from the UN in 1992, but Serbia continued its - ultimately unsuccessful - campaign until signing the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. MILOSEVIC kept tight control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999 and to the eventual withdrawal of Serbian military and police forces from Kosovo in June 1999. UNSC Resolution 1244 in June 1999 authorized the stationing of a NATO-led force (KFOR) in Kosovo to provide a safe and secure environment for the region's ethnic communities, created a UN interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) to foster self-governing institutions, and reserved the issue of Kosovo's final status for an unspecified date in the future. In 2001, UNMIK promulgated a constitutional framework that allowed Kosovo to establish institutions of self-government and led to Kosovo's first parliamentary election. FRY elections in September 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and installed Vojislav KOSTUNICA as president. A broad coalition of democratic reformist parties known as DOS (the Democratic Opposition of Serbia) was subsequently elected to parliament in December 2000 and took control of the government. DOS arrested MILOSEVIC in 2001 and allowed for him to be tried in The Hague for crimes against humanity. (MILOSEVIC died in March 2006 before the completion of his trial.) In 2001, the country's suspension from the UN was lifted. In 2003, the FRY became Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics with a federal level parliament. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 caused the international community to open negotiations on the future status of Kosovo in January 2006. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right to secede from the federation and - following a successful referendum - it declared itself an independent nation on 3 June 2006. Two days later, Serbia declared that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro. A new Serbian constitution was approved in October 2006 and adopted the following month. After 15 months of inconclusive negotiations mediated by the UN and four months of further inconclusive negotiations mediated by the US, EU, and Russia, on 17 February 2008, the UNMIK-administered province of Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Serbia(SIRBİSTAN)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:45 am

Geography
Controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East.
Location: Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary
Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 21 00 E
Area: total: 77,474 sq km
land: 77,474 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land Boundaries: total: 2,026 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia 241 km, Hungary 151 km, Kosovo 352 km, Macedonia 62 km, Montenegro 124 km, Romania 476 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills
Elevation extremes: lowest point: NA
highest point: Midzor 2,169 m
Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land
Land use: arable land: NA
permanent crops: NA
other: NA
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
^Back to Top
People
Population: 10,159,046 note: all population data includes Kosovo (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Median age: total: 37.5 years
male: 36.1 years
female: 39 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Birth rate:
Death rate:
Net migration rate:
Sex ratio:
Infant mortality rate:
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.29 years
male: 72.7 years
female: 78.09 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.69 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Nationality: noun: Serb(s)
adjective: Serbian
Ethnic groups: Serb 82.9%, Hungarian 3.9%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, other 8% (2002 census)
Religions: Serbian Orthodox 85%, Catholic 5.5%, Protestant 1.1%, Muslim 3.2%, unspecified 2.6%, other, unknown, or atheist 2.6% (2002 census)
Languages: Serbian 88.3% (official), Hungarian 3.8%, Bosniak 1.8%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 4.1%, unknown 0.9% (2002 census) note: Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak, Ukrainian, and Croatian all official in Vojvodina
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.9%
female: 94.1% (2003 census)
note: includes Montenegro
^Back to Top
Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Serbia
conventional short form: Serbia
local long form: Republika Srbija
local short form: Srbija
former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Belgrade (Beograd)
geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 161 municipalities (opcstine, singular - opcstina)
Serbia Proper: Beograd: Barajevo, Cukavica, Grocka, Lazarevac, Mladnovac, Novi Beograd, Obrenovac, Palilula, Rakovica, Savski Venac, Sopot, Stari Grad, Surcin, Vozdovac, Vracar, Zemun, Zrezdara; Borski Okrug: Bor, Kladovo, Majdanpek, Negotin; Branicevski Okrug: Golubac, Kucevo, Malo Crnice, Petrovac, Pozarevac, Veliko Gradiste, Zabari, Zagubica; Jablanicki Okrug: Bojnik, Crna Trava, Lebane, Leskovac, Medvedja, Vlasotince; Kolubarski Okrug: Lajkovac, Ljig, Mionica, Osecina, Ub, Valjevo; Macvanski Okrug: Bogatic, Koceljeva, Krupanj, Ljubovija, Loznica, Mali Zvornik, Sabac, Vladimirci; Moravicki Okrug: Cacak, Gornkji Milanovac, Ivanjica, Lucani; Nisavski Okrug: Aleksinac, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Merosina, Nis, Razanj, Svrljig; Pcinjski Okrug: Bosilegrad, Bujanovac, Presevo, Surdulica, Trgoviste, Vladicin Han, Vranje; Pirotski Okrug: Babusnica, Bela Palanka, Dimitrovgrad, Pirot; Podunavski Okrug: Smederevo, Smederevskia Palanka, Velika Plana; Pomoravski Okrug: Cuprija, Despotovac, Jagodina, Paracin, Rckovac, Svilajnac; Rasinski Okrug: Aleksandrovac, Brus, Cicevac, Krusevac, Trstenik, Varvarin; Raski Okrug: Kraljevo, Novi Pazar, Raska, Tutin, Vrnjacka Banja; Sumadijski Okrug: Arandjelovac, Batocina, Knic, Kragujevac, Lapovo, Raca, Topola; Toplicki Okrug: Blace, Kursumlija, Prokuplje, Zitoradja; Zajecarski Okrug: Boljevac, Knjazevac, Sokobanja, Zalecar; Zlatiborski Okrug: Arilje, Bajina Basta, Cajetina, Kosjeric, Nova Varos, Pozega, Priboj, Prijepolje, Sjenica, Uzice
Vojvodina Autonomous Province: Juzno-Backi Okrug: Backi Petrovac, Beocin, Novi Sad, Sremski Karlovci, Temerin, Titel, Zabalj; Juzno Banatski Okrug: Alibunar, Bela Crkva, Kovacica, Kovin, Opovo, Pancevo, Plandiste, Vrsac; Severno-Backi Okrug: Backa Topola, Mali Idjos, Subotica; Severno-Banatski Okrug: Ada, Coka, Kanjiza, Kikinda, Novi Knezevac, Senta; Srednje-Banatski Okrug: Nova Crnja, Novi Becej, Secanj, Zitiste, Zrenjanin; Sremski Okrug: Indjija, Irig, Pecinci, Ruma, Sid, Sremska Mitrovica, Stara Pazova; Zapadno-Backi Okrug: Apatin, Kula, Odzaci, Sombor
Independence: 5 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)
National holiday: National Day, 15 February
Constitution: adopted 8 November 2006; effective 10 November 2006
Legal system: based on civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Boris TADIC (since 11 July 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Mirko CVETKOVIC (since 7 July 2008)
cabinet: Federal Ministries act as cabinet
elections: president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 February 2008 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister elected by the Assembly
election results: Boris TADIC elected president in the second round of voting; Boris TADIC received 51.2% of the vote and Tomislav NIKOLIC 48.8%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (250 seats; deputies elected by direct vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 May 2008 (next to be held in May 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - For a European Serbia coalition 38.4%, SRS 29.5%, DSS-NS 11.6%, coalition led by the SPS 7.6%, LPD 5.2%, other 7.7%; seats by party - For a European Serbia 102, SRS 78, DSS-NS 30, coalition led by the SPS 20, LDP 13, other 7; note - the seat allocation for the SNS is uncertain because of an ongoing dispute with the SRS
Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (to become court of cassation under new constitution), appellate courts, district courts, municipal courts
Political parties and leaders: Coalition of Albanians of the Presevo Valley or KAPD [Riza HALIMI]; Coalition for Sandzak or KZS [Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Ragmi MUSTAFA]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; Democratic Union of the Valley or BDL [Skender DESTANI]; For a European Serbia [Boris TADIC]; Force of Serbia Movement or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]; G17 Plus [Mladjan DINKIC]; League of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASTOR]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; Movement for Democratic Progress or LPD [Jonuz MUSLIU]; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Party of Democratic Action or PVD [Riza HALIMI]; Roma Party or RP [Srdjan SAJN]; Serbian Progressive Party or SNS [Tomislav NIKOLIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ (currently on trial at The Hague), but Tomislav NIKOLIC is acting leader]; Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]; Union of Roma of Serbia or URS [Rajko DJURIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD (suspended), IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ivan VUJACIC
chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron MUNTER
embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade
mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344
FAX: [381] (11) 361-8230
Executive branch: chief of state: President Boris TADIC (since 11 July 2004) head of government: Prime Minister Mirko CVETKOVIC (since 7 July 2008) cabinet: Federal Ministries act as cabinet elections: president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 February 2008 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister elected by the Assembly election results: Boris TADIC elected president in the second round of voting; Boris TADIC received 51.2% of the vote and Tomislav NIKOLIC 48.8%
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MesajKonu: Geri: Serbia(SIRBİSTAN)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:45 am

Economy
MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, a down-sized Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A World Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors' Conference held in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion for economic restructuring. In November 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reschedule the country's $4.5 billion public debt and wrote off 66% of the debt. In July 2004, the London Club of private creditors forgave $1.7 billion of debt just over half the total owed. Belgrade has made only minimal progress in restructuring and privatizing its holdings in major sectors of the economy, including energy and telecommunications. It has made halting progress towards EU membership and is currently pursuing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels. Serbia is also pursuing membership in the World Trade Organization. Unemployment remains an ongoing political and economic problem.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $77.28 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $41.68 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.3% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $10,400 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 12.3%
industry: 24.2%
services: 63.5% (2007 est.)
Labor force: 2.961 million (2002 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 30%
industry: 46%
services: 24% (2002)
Unemployment rate: 18.8% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line: 6.5% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 30 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.8% (2007)
Investment (gross fixed): 20.1% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget: revenues: $9.6 billion
expenditures: $9.8 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt: 37% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, maize, sugar beets, sunflower, raspberries, beef, pork, milk
Industries: sugar, agricultural machinery, electrical and communication equipment, paper and pulp, lead, transportation equipment
Industrial production growth rate: 1.8% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production: 33.87 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - consumption: NA kWh
Electricity - exports: 12.05 billion kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity - imports: 11.23 billion kWh (2004)
Oil - production: 11,410 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 85,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves: 77.5 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 650 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 2.55 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 2.1 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 48.14 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance: -$6.889 billion (2007 est.)
Exports: $8.824 billion (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment
Imports: $18.35 billion (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $14.22 billion (2007 est.)
Debt - external: $26.24 billion (includes debt for Montenegro and Kosovo) (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $11.95 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $5.409 billion (2005)
Currency (code): Serbian dinar (RSD)
Exchange rates: Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar - 54.5 (2007), 59.98 (2006)
Fiscal year:
^Back to Top
Communications
Telephones in use: 2.993 million (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 8.453 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has been slow as a result of damage stemming from the 1999 war and transition to a competitive market-based system; network was only 65% digitalized in 2005
domestic: teledensity remains below the average for neighboring states; GSM wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications service limited to urban centers
international: country code - 381
Radio broadcast stations: 153 (station types NA) (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Internet country code: .rs
Internet hosts: NA
Internet users: 1.5 million (2007)
^Back to Top
Transportation
Airports: 39 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 23
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 12 (2007)
Heliports: 2 (2007)
Pipelines: gas 1,921 km; oil 393 km (2007)
Railways: total: 3,379 km
standard gauge: 3,379 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 1,254 km) (2006)
Roadways: total: 36,875 km
paved: 31,392 km
unpaved: 5,483 km
note: roadways in Kosovo listed separately (2006)
Waterways: 587 km (primarily on Danube and Sava rivers) (2005)
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Military

Military branches: Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces Command (includes Riverine Component, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Joint Operations Command, Air and Air Defense Forces Command (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 19-35 years of age for compulsory military service; under a state of war or impending war, conscription can begin at age 16; conscription is to be abolished in 2010; 9-month service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 60 for men and 50 for women (2007)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Serbia(SIRBİSTAN)   Bugün 7:45 pm

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