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 Slovenia(SLOVENYA)

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MesajKonu: Slovenia(SLOVENYA)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:56 am

The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though Communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Slovenia(SLOVENYA)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:57 am

Geography
Despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes.
Location: Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia
Geographic coordinates: 46 07 N, 14 49 E
Area: total: 20,273 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
water: 122 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land Boundaries: total: 1,086 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 455 km, Hungary 102 km, Italy 199 km
Coastline: 46.6 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate: Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Terrain: a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
Natural resources: lignite coal, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests
Land use: arable land: 8.53%
permanent crops: 1.43%
other: 90.04% (2005)
Irrigated land: 30 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: flooding and earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
^Back to Top
People
Population: 2,007,711 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 13.6% (male 140,686/female 132,778)
15-64 years: 70.1% (male 709,689/female 697,862)
65 years and over: 16.3% (male 127,313/female 199,383) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 41.4 years
male: 39.8 years
female: 42.9 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.088% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 8.99 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 10.51 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.87 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.73 years
male: 73.04 years
female: 80.66 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.27 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 280 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian
Ethnic groups: Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)
Religions: Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)
Languages: Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4% (2002 census)
Literacy: definition: NA
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6%
^Back to Top
Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenija
local short form: Slovenija
former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Ljubljana
geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 182 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (mestne obcine , singular - mestna obcina ) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik-Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos-Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola-Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Koper-Capodistria*, Kostel, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava-Lendva, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran-Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogasovci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Salovci, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sostanj, Starse, Store, Sveta Ana, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zuzemberk, Zrece
note: the Government of Slovenia has reported 210 municipalities
Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday: Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Constitution: adopted 23 December 1991, amended 14 July 1997 and 25 July 2000
Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
Executive branch: chief of state: President Danilo TURK (since 22 December 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Borut PAHOR (since 7 November 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 October and 11 November 2007 (next to be held in the fall of 2012); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 9 November 2004 (next National Assembly elections to be held in October 2008)
election results: Danilo TURK elected president; percent of vote - Danilo TURK 68.2%, Alojze PETERLE 31.8%; Janez JANSA elected prime minister by National Assembly vote - 57 to 27 in 2004
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of a National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 40 members are directly elected and 50 are elected on a proportional basis; note - the number of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; the constitution mandates 1 seat each for Slovenia's Hungarian and Italian minorities; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve five-year terms; note - this is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws, ask to review any National Assembly decision, and call national referenda)
elections: National Assembly - last held 21 September 2008 (next to be held 8 October 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - SD 30.5%, SDS 29.3%, ZARES 9.4%, DeSUS 7.5%, SNS 5.5%, SLS+SMS 5.2%, LDS 5.2%, other 7.4%; seats by party - SD 29, SDS 28, ZARES 9, DeSUS 7, SNS 5, SLS+SMS 5, LDS 5, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)
Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democracy of Slovenia or LDS [Katarina KRESAL]; New Slovenia or NSi [Ljudmila NOVAK (acting)]; Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]; Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Bojan SROT]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Darko KRANJC]; Social Democrats or SD [Borut PAHOR] (formerly ZLSD); ZARES [Gregor Golobic]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Democratic Party of Slovenian Pensioners or DeSUS (protecting the rights of the older generation); Slovenian Roma Association [Jozek Horvat MUC]
other: Catholic Church
International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mariam MOZGAN
chancery: 2410 California Street N.W., Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 386-6601
FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633
consulate(s) general: Cleveland, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Yousif B. GHAFARI
embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana, US Department of State, 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
Executive branch: chief of state: President Danilo TURK (since 22 December 2007) head of government: Prime Minister Borut PAHOR (since 7 November 2008) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 October and 11 November 2007 (next to be held in the fall of 2012); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 9 November 2004 (next National Assembly elections to be held in October 2008) election results: Danilo TURK elected president; percent of vote - Danilo TURK 68.2%, Alojze PETERLE 31.8%; Janez JANSA elected prime minister by National Assembly vote - 57 to 27 in 2004
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MesajKonu: Geri: Slovenia(SLOVENYA)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:57 am

Economy
Slovenia, which on 1 January 2007 became the first 2004 European Union entrant to adopt the euro, is a model of economic success and stability for the region. With the highest per capita GDP in Central Europe, Slovenia has excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe. Privatization has lagged since 2002, and the economy has one of highest levels of state control in the EU. Structural reforms to improve the business environment have allowed for somewhat greater foreign participation in Slovenia's economy and have helped to lower unemployment. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. In December 2007, Slovenia was invited to begin the accession process for joining the OECD. Despite its economic success, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Slovenia has lagged behind the region average, and taxes remain relatively high. Furthermore, the labor market is often seen as inflexible, and legacy industries are losing sales to more competitive firms in China, India, and elsewhere.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $61.79 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $57.01 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.5% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $30,800 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 34.2%
services: 63.6% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 920,000 (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 36%
services: 61.5% (2007)
Unemployment rate: 6.7% (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line: 12.9% (2004)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 21.4% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 24 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 27.8% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $23.16 billion
expenditures: $22.93 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt: 22% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 14.13 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 13.4 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 5.894 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 6.14 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 5 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 54,310 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 4,535 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 59,110 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 4 million cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 1.105 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 1.073 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: -$3.706 billion (2008 est.)
Exports: $34.27 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
Exports - partners: Germany 18.7%, Italy 12.5%, Croatia 8%, Austria 7.5%, France 5.9%, Russia 4.4% (2007)
Imports: $38.12 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
Imports - partners: Germany 18.1%, Italy 17.1%, Austria 11.7%, France 5%, Croatia 4.6% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $8.912 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $40.42 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $11.51 billion (2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $7.527 billion (2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $28.96 billion (31 December 2007)
Currency (code): euro (EUR) note: on 1 January 2007, the euro became Slovenia's currency; both the tolar and the euro were in circulation from 1 January until 15 January 2007
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.67 (2008 est.), 0.7345 (2007), tolars per US dollar - 190.85 (2006), 192.71 (2005), 192.38 (2004) note: Slovenia adopted the euro as its currency on 1 January 2007
Fiscal year: calendar year
^Back to Top
Communications
Telephones in use: 857,100 (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 1.928 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 140 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 386
Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 230, shortwave 0 (2006)
Television broadcast stations: 31 (2006)
Internet country code: .si
Internet hosts: 75,984 (2008)
Internet users: 1.3 million (2007)
^Back to Top
Transportation
Airports: 14 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Pipelines: gas 840 km; oil 11 km (2007)
Railways: total: 1,229 km
standard gauge: 1,229 km 1.435-m gauge (504 km electrified) (2006)
Roadways: total: 38,562 km
paved: 38,562 km (includes 579 km of expressways) (2006)
Waterways: some transport on Danube River (2008)
Merchant marine: registered in other countries: 29 (Antigua and Barbuda 6, Bahamas 1, Cyprus 4, Liberia 3, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Singapore 1, Slovakia 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Koper
^Back to Top
Military

Military branches: Slovenian Army (includes air and naval forces)
Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2007)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 494,496
females age 16-49: 481,180 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 406,951
females age 16-49: 395,444 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Slovenia(SLOVENYA)   Bugün 9:51 am

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