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 Svalbard (sometimes referred to as Spitzbergen)

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MesajKonu: Svalbard (sometimes referred to as Spitzbergen)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:58 am

First discovered by the Norwegians in the 12th century, the islands served as an international whaling base during the 17th and 18th centuries. Norway's sovereignty was recognized in 1920; five years later it officially took over the territory.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Svalbard (sometimes referred to as Spitzbergen)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:58 am

Geography
Northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area; Spitsbergen Island is the site of the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, a seed repository established by the Global Crop Diversity Trust and the Norwegian Government.
Location: Northern Europe, islands between the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea, north of Norway
Geographic coordinates: 78 00 N, 20 00 E
Area: total: 61,020 sq km
land: 61,020 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)
Size comparison: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 3,587 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 4 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway but not recognized by Russia
Climate: arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year
Terrain: wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of ice about one-half of the year; fjords along west and north coasts
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Arctic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Newtontoppen 1,717 m
Natural resources: coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, phosphate, wildlife, fish
Land use: arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (no trees; the only bushes are crowberry and cloudberry) (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: ice floes often block the entrance to Bellsund (a transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible to maritime traffic
Current Environment Issues: NA
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People
Population: 2,165 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA
Median age:
Population growth rate: -0.023% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: NA (2008 est.)
Death rate: NA (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: NA (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: NA
Infant mortality rate: total: NA
male: NA
female: NA (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: NA (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0% (2001)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 0 (2001)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 0 (2001)
Nationality:
Ethnic groups: Norwegian 55.4%, Russian and Ukrainian 44.3%, other 0.3% (1998)
Religions:
Languages: Norwegian, Russian
Literacy: NA
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Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Svalbard (sometimes referred to as Spitzbergen)
Government type: NA
Capital: name: Longyearbyen
geographic coordinates: 78 13 N, 15 33 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
Independence: none (territory of Norway)
National holiday:
Constitution:
Legal system: the laws of Norway, where applicable, apply
Suffrage:
Executive branch: chief of state: King HARALD V of Norway (since 17 January 1991)
head of government: Governor Per SEFLAND (since 1 October 2005); Assistant Governor Rune Baard HANSEN (since 2003)
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor and assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice
Legislative branch:
Judicial branch:
Political parties and leaders:
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: none
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Executive branch: chief of state: King HARALD V of Norway (since 17 January 1991) head of government: Governor Per SEFLAND (since 1 October 2005); Assistant Governor Rune Baard HANSEN (since 2003) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor and assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice
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MesajKonu: Geri: Svalbard (sometimes referred to as Spitzbergen)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 11:58 am

Economy
Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. The treaty of 9 February 1920 gave the 41 signatories equal rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and Russian. The settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some hunting of seal, reindeer, and fox.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $NA
GDP (official exchange rate):
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita (PPP):
GDP - composition by sector:
Labor force: NA
Labor force - by occupation:
Unemployment rate:
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Budget: revenues: $25.07 million
expenditures: $NA (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries:
Industrial production growth rate:
Exports: $197.6 million (2004)
Exports - commodities:
Imports: $NA
Imports - commodities:
Debt - external:
Currency (code): Norwegian krone (NOK)
Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar - 5.2338 (2008 est.), 5.8396 (2007), 6.4117 (2006), 6.4425 (2005), 6.7408 (2004)
Fiscal year:
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Communications
Telephones in use: NA
Cellular Phones in use:
Telephone system: general assessment: probably adequate
domestic: local telephone service
international: country code - 47-790; satellite earth station - 1 of unknown type (for communication with Norwegian mainland only)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1 (plus 2 repeaters), shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations: NA
Internet country code: .sj
Internet hosts:
Internet users: NA
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Transportation
Airports: 4 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Heliports: 1 (2007)
Roadways:
Ports and terminals: Barentsburg, Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, Pyramiden
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Military
Svalbard is a territory of Norway, demilitarized by treaty on 9 February 1920
Military branches: no regular military forces
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MesajKonu: Geri: Svalbard (sometimes referred to as Spitzbergen)   Bugün 4:20 pm

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