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 San Marino

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MesajKonu: San Marino   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:01 pm

The third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy; social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor.
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MesajKonu: Geri: San Marino   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:01 pm

Geography
Landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines.
Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Geographic coordinates: 43 46 N, 12 25 E
Area: total: 61.2 sq km
land: 61.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Size comparison: about one third times the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries: total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
Terrain: rugged mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 755 m
Natural resources: building stone
Land use: arable land: 16.67%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 83.33% (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: NA
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution
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People
Population: 29,973 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.8% (male 2,608/female 2,430)
15-64 years: 66% (male 9,464/female 10,304)
65 years and over: 17.2% (male 2,229/female 2,938) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 41.2 years
male: 40.9 years
female: 41.6 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.181% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 9.74 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 8.37 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: 10.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 5.44 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.86 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.88 years
male: 78.43 years
female: 85.64 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese
Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian
Religions: Roman Catholic
Languages: Italian
Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95%
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Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino
Government type: republic
Capital: name: San Marino
geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle
Independence: 3 September AD 301
National holiday: Founding of the Republic, 3 September (AD 301)
Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution
Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Ernesto BENEDETTINI and Captain Regent Assunta MELONI (for the period 1 October-31 March 2009)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Antonella MULARONI (since 3 December 2008)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term
elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in September 2008 (next to be held in April 2009); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held 9 November 2008 (next to be held by 2013)
election results: Ernesto BENEDETTINI and Assunta MELONI elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Antonella MULARONI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA
note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles
Legislative branch: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 9 November 2008 (next to be held by June 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 54.2%: PDCS 31.9%, AP 11.5%, Freedom List 6.3%, San Marino Union of Moderates 4.2%; Reforms and Freedom coalition 45.8%: Party of Socialists and Democrats 32%, United Left 8.6%, Democrats of the Center 4.9%; seats by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 35: PDCS 22, AP 7, the Freedom List 4, San Marino Union of Moderates 2; Reforms and Freedom coalition 25: Party of Socialists and Democrats 18, United Left 5, Democrats of the Center 2
Judicial branch: Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII
Political parties and leaders: Centre Democrats or DdC [Orazio MAZZA]; Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Freedom List; Ideas in Movement or IM [Alessandro ROSSI]; National Alliance or AN [Glauco SANSOVINI]; New Socialist Party [Augusto CASALI]; Party of Socialists and Democrats [Claudio FELICI]; San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Loris FRANCINI]; San Marino Popular Alliance of Democrats or AP [Roberto GIORGETTI]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Alberto CECCHETTI]; Socialists for Reform or SR [Renzo GIARDI]; Union of Moderates; United Left
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: CE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI
chancery: 888 27th Street NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: 202-337-2260
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino
Executive branch: chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Ernesto BENEDETTINI and Captain Regent Assunta MELONI (for the period 1 October-31 March 2009) head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Antonella MULARONI (since 3 December 2008) cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in September 2008 (next to be held in April 2009); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held 9 November 2008 (next to be held by 2013) election results: Ernesto BENEDETTINI and Assunta MELONI elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Antonella MULARONI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles
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MesajKonu: Geri: San Marino   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:02 pm

Economy
San Marino's economy relies heavily on its tourism and banking industries, as well as from the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The economy also benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. The San Marino government, sworn in on 3 December 2008, will continue to work towards an economic cooperation agreement with Italy - a longstanding priority - as well as harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU members. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies much of its food.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.4 billion (2006)
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.048 billion (2004)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.6% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $46,100 (2006)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Labor force: 20,470 (2004)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 0.2%
industry: 40.1%
services: 59.7% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate: 2.8% (2004)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): -1.5% (2006)
Budget: revenues: $709.6 million
expenditures: $672.3 million (2004)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
Industrial production growth rate:
Exports: $1.291 billion (2004)
Exports - commodities: building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics
Imports: $2.035 billion (2004)
Imports - commodities: wide variety of consumer manufactures, food
Debt - external: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Currency (code): euro (EUR)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6734 (2008 est.), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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Communications
Telephones in use: 21,000 (2006)
Cellular Phones in use: 17,390 (2006)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate connections
domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 130 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network
Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (San Marino residents also receive broadcasts from Italy) (1997)
Internet country code: .sm
Internet hosts: 6,665 (2008)
Internet users: 15,400 (2006)
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Transportation
Roadways: total: 292 km
paved: 292 km (2006)
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Military
Defense is the responsibility of Italy
Military branches: no regular military forces; Voluntary Military Force (Corpi Militari Voluntar) performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 16-55 for voluntary service in Voluntary Military Force (2006)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 6,613 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 5,345 (2008 est.)
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