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 Senegal(SENEGAL)

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MesajKonu: Senegal(SENEGAL)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:02 pm

The French colonies of Senegal and the French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted their independence as the Mali Federation in 1960. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982, but the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance (MFDC) has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s, and several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until current President Abdoulaye WADE was elected in 2000. He was reelected in February 2007, but complaints of fraud led opposition parties to boycott June 2007 legislative polls. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Senegal(SENEGAL)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:02 pm

Geography
Westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal.
Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Geographic coordinates: 14 00 N, 14 00 W
Area: total: 196,190 sq km
land: 192,000 sq km
water: 4,190 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land Boundaries: total: 2,640 km
border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km
Coastline: 531 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed feature near Nepen Diakha 581 m
Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land use: arable land: 12.51%
permanent crops: 0.24%
other: 87.25% (2005)
Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
Current Environment Issues: wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
^Back to Top
People
Population: 12,853,259 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.9% (male 2,717,257/female 2,668,602)
15-64 years: 55.1% (male 3,524,683/female 3,552,643)
65 years and over: 3% (male 183,188/female 206,886) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 18.8 years
male: 18.6 years
female: 19 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.58% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 36.52 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 10.72 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 58.93 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 62.79 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 54.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 57.08 years
male: 55.7 years
female: 58.5 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.86 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.8% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 44,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3,500 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
Ethnic groups: Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%
Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic), indigenous beliefs 1%
Languages: French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 39.3%
male: 51.1%
female: 29.2% (2002 est.)
^Back to Top
Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 40 N, 17 26 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 11 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
Independence: 4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Constitution: adopted 7 January 2001
Legal system: based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; the Council of State audits the government's accounting office; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdoulaye WADE (since 1 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Cheikh Hadjibou SOUMARE (since 19 June 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) under new constitution; election last held on 25 February 2007 (next to be held in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdoulaye WADE reelected president in the first round of voting; percent of vote - Abdoulaye WADE 55.9%, Idrissa SECK 14.9%, Ousmane Tanor DIENG 13.6%, Moustapha NIASSE 5.9%, other 9.7%
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consisting of the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members elected by direct popular vote with the remaining members elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms) and the Senate reinstituted in 2007 (100 seats; 35 indirectly elected with the remaining 65 members to be appointed by the president)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 3 June 2007 (next to be held 2012); note - the National Assembly in December 2005 voted to postpone legislative elections originally scheduled for 2006; legislative elections were first rescheduled to coincide with the 25 February 2007 presidential elections and later rescheduled for 3 June 2007; the June election was boycotted by 12 opposition parties, including the former ruling Socialist Party, that resulted in a record-low, 35-percent voter turnout; Senate - last held 19 August 2007 (next to be held - NA)
election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SOPI Coalition 131, other 19; Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDS 34, AJ/PADS 1, 65 appointed by the president
Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals
Political parties and leaders: African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]; Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar [Macky Sall]; And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Landing SAVANE]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]; People's Labor Party or PTP [Elhadji DIOUF]; Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]; Rewmi Party [Idrissa Seck]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]; SOPI Coalition [Abdoulaye WADE] (a coalition led by the PDS); Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: labor; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Amadou Lamine BA
chancery: 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6315
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Marcia S. BERNICAT
embassy: Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Rue Kleber, Dakar
mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 33-829-2100
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdoulaye WADE (since 1 April 2000) head of government: Prime Minister Cheikh Hadjibou SOUMARE (since 19 June 2007) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) under new constitution; election last held on 25 February 2007 (next to be held in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Abdoulaye WADE reelected president in the first round of voting; percent of vote - Abdoulaye WADE 55.9%, Idrissa SECK 14.9%, Ousmane Tanor DIENG 13.6%, Moustapha NIASSE 5.9%, other 9.7%
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MesajKonu: Geri: Senegal(SENEGAL)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:03 pm

Economy
In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and ambitious economic reform program with the support of the international donor community. This reform began with a 50% devaluation of Senegal's currency, the CFA franc, which was linked at a fixed rate to the French franc. Government price controls and subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to the reform program, with real growth in GDP averaging over 5% annually during 1995-2008. Annual inflation had been pushed down to the single digits. As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff and a more stable monetary policy. High unemployment, however, continues to prompt illegal migrants to flee Senegal in search of better job opportunities in Europe. Senegal was also beset by an energy crisis that caused widespread blackouts in 2006 and 2007. The phosphate industry has struggled for two years to secure capital, and reduced output has directly impacted GDP. In 2007, Senegal signed agreements for major new mining concessions for iron, zircon, and gold with foreign companies. Firms from Dubai have agreed to manage and modernize Dakar's maritime port, and create a new special economic zone. Senegal still relies heavily upon outside donor assistance. Under the IMF's Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief program, Senegal has benefited from eradication of two-thirds of its bilateral, multilateral, and private-sector debt. In 2007, Senegal and the IMF agreed to a new, non-disbursing, Policy Support Initiative program.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $22.98 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $13.9 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,800 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 16%
industry: 19.4%
services: 64.6% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 4.973 million (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 77.5%
industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate: 48% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line: 54% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 33.4% (2001)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 41.3 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.6% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 25.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $3.141 billion
expenditures: $3.799 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt: 21.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining; iron ore, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 2.28 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 1.657 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption: 36,200 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 4,298 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 40,450 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 50 million cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 50 million cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - exports: NA cu m
Natural gas - imports: NA cu m
Natural gas - proved reserves: NA cu m
Current account balance: -$2.078 billion (2008 est.)
Exports: $1.904 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
Exports - partners: Mali 18.9%, France 9.1%, Italy 5.9%, India 5.7%, Gambia, The 5.2% (2007)
Imports: $4.654 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
Imports - partners: France 22.2%, Netherlands 10%, China 7.4%, UK 6.2%, Thailand 5.2%, Belgium 4.5% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.765 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $2.528 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Currency (code): Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar 438.77 (2008 est.), 481.83 (2007), 522.89 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004) note: since 1 January 1999, the XOF franc has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF francs per euro
Fiscal year: calendar year
^Back to Top
Communications
Telephones in use: 269,100 (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 4.123 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: good system
domestic: above-average urban system with a fiber-optic network; nearly two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar where a call-center industry is emerging; expansion of fixed-line services in rural areas needed; mobile-cellular service is expanding rapidly; microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
international: country code - 221; the SAT-3/WASC fiber optic cable provides connectivity to Europe and Asia while Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 20, shortwave 1 (2001)
Television broadcast stations: 4 (2007)
Internet country code: .sn
Internet hosts: 217 (2008)
Internet users: 820,000 (2007)
^Back to Top
Transportation
Airports: 20 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 9
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Pipelines: gas 43 km (2007)
Railways: total: 906 km
narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000 meter gauge (2006)
Roadways: total: 13,576 km
paved: 3,972 km (includes 7 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,604 km (2003)
Waterways: 1,000 km (primarily on Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance rivers) (2008)
Ports and terminals: Dakar
^Back to Top
Military

Military branches: Army, Senegalese Navy (Marine Senegalaise), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,943,619
females age 16-49: 2,955,179 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,866,602
females age 16-49: 1,947,076 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Senegal(SENEGAL)   Bugün 3:21 pm

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