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 El Salvador

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MesajKonu: El Salvador   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:08 pm

El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms.
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MesajKonu: Geri: El Salvador   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:08 pm

Geography
Smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea.
Location: Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras
Geographic coordinates: 13 50 N, 88 55 W
Area: total: 21,040 sq km
land: 20,720 sq km
water: 320 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land Boundaries: total: 545 km
border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km
Coastline: 307 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands
Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m
Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land
Land use: arable land: 31.37%
permanent crops: 11.88%
other: 56.75% (2005)
Irrigated land: 450 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
^Back to Top
People
Population: 7,066,403 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 35.8% (male 1,291,147/female 1,237,453)
15-64 years: 59% (male 1,987,671/female 2,179,620)
65 years and over: 5.2% (male 162,100/female 208,412) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 22.2 years
male: 21.1 years
female: 23.4 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.679% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 25.72 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 5.53 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -3.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 22.19 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 25.06 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.06 years
male: 68.45 years
female: 75.84 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.04 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.7% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 29,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,200 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Salvadoran(s)
adjective: Salvadoran
Ethnic groups: mestizo 90%, white 9%, Amerindian 1%
Religions: Roman Catholic 57.1%, Protestant 21.2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.9%, Mormon 0.7%, other religions 2.3%, none 16.8% (2003 est.)
Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)
Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 80.2%
male: 82.8%
female: 77.7% (2003 est.)
^Back to Top
Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
conventional short form: El Salvador
local long form: Republica de El Salvador
local short form: El Salvador
Government type: republic
Capital: name: San Salvador
geographic coordinates: 13 42 N, 89 12 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, San Vicente, Santa Ana, Sonsonate, Usulutan
Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution: 20 December 1983
Legal system: based on civil and Roman law with traces of common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez (since 1 June 2004); Vice President Ana Vilma Albanez DE ESCOBAR (since 1 June 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez (since 1 June 2004); Vice President Ana Vilma Albanez DE ESCOBAR (since 1 June 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 21 March 2004 (next to be held in 15 March 2009)
election results: Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez elected president; percent of vote - Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez 57.7%, Schafik HANDAL 35.6%, Hector SILVA 3.9%, other 2.8%
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 12 March 2006 (next to be held in March 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ARENA 34, FMLN 32, PCN 10, PDC 6, CD 2
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (15 judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly; the 15 judges are assigned to four Supreme Court chambers - constitutional, civil, penal, and administrative conflict)
Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rodolfo PARKER]; Democratic Convergence or CD [Ruben ZAMORA] (formerly United Democratic Center or CDU); Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Medardo GONZALEZ]; National Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ ZEPEDA]; National Republican Alliance or ARENA [Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez]; Popular Social Christian Party or PPSC [Rene AGUILUZ]; Revolutionary Democratic Front or FDR [Julio Cesar HERNANDEZ Carcamo]
Political pressure groups and leaders: labor organizations - Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES; Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL; business organizations - National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI
International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rene Antonio LEON Rodriguez
chancery: 1400 16th Street, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671
FAX: [1] (202) 234-3763
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Elizabeth (New Jersey), Houston, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, New York (2), Nogales (Arizona), Santa Ana (California), San Francisco, Washington (DC), Woodbridge (Virginia), Woodstock (Georgia)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Charles L. GLAZER
embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena Sur, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, San Salvador
mailing address: Unit 3116, APO AA 34023; 3450 San Salvador Place, Washington, DC 20521-3450
telephone: [503] 2501-2999
FAX: [503] 2501-2150
Executive branch: chief of state: President Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez (since 1 June 2004); Vice President Ana Vilma Albanez DE ESCOBAR (since 1 June 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez (since 1 June 2004); Vice President Ana Vilma Albanez DE ESCOBAR (since 1 June 2004) cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 21 March 2004 (next to be held in 15 March 2009) election results: Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez elected president; percent of vote - Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez 57.7%, Schafik HANDAL 35.6%, Hector SILVA 3.9%, other 2.8%
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MesajKonu: Geri: El Salvador   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:08 pm

Economy
The smallest country in Central America, El Salvador has the third largest economy, but growth has been modest in recent years. Economic growth will decelerate in 2009 due to the global slowdown and to El Salvador's dependence on exports to the US and remittances from the US. El Salvador leads the region in remittances per capita with inflows equivalent to nearly all export income. In 2006 El Salvador was the first country to ratify the Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA). CAFTA has bolstered the export of processed foods, sugar, and ethanol, and supported investment in the maquila sector. The SACA administration has sought to diversify the economy, focusing on regional transportation and tourism. El Salvador has promoted an open trade and investment environment, and has embarked on a wave of privatizations extending to telecom, electricity distribution, banking, and pension funds. In late 2006, the government and the Millennium Challenge Corporation signed a five-year, $461 million compact to stimulate economic growth and reduce poverty in the country's northern region through investments in education, public services, enterprise development, and transportation infrastructure. With the adoption of the US dollar as its currency in 2001, El Salvador lost control over monetary policy and must concentrate on maintaining a disciplined fiscal policy.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $45.34 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $22.28 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.4% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $6,400 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11.1%
industry: 29.8%
services: 59.1% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 2.958 million (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 19%
industry: 23%
services: 58% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6.4% official rate; but the economy has much underemployment (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line: 30.7% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.7%
highest 10%: 38.8% (2002)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 52.4 (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.1% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 16% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $3.928 billion
expenditures: $4.226 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt: 35.6% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 5.338 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 4.426 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports: 8.64 million kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 11.08 million kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - consumption: 44,330 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 4,963 bbl/day (2006)
Oil - imports: 45,210 bbl/day (2006)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.222 billion (2008 est.)
Exports: $4.61 billion (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, shrimp, textiles and apparel, gold, ethanol, chemicals, electricity
Exports - partners: US 51%, Guatemala 13.6%, Honduras 11.2%, Nicaragua 5.5% (2007)
Imports: $8.787 billion (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity
Imports - partners: US 35.7%, Mexico 9.8%, Guatemala 8.5%, China 4.7% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.149 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $10.22 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $6.693 billion (2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $366 million (2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $6.743 billion (31 December 2007)
Currency (code): US dollar (USD)
Exchange rates: the US dollar became El Salvador's currency in 2001
Fiscal year: calendar year
^Back to Top
Communications
Telephones in use: 1.08 million (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 6.137 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: multiple mobile-cellular service providers are expanding services rapidly and in 2007 mobile-cellular density stood at nearly 90 per 100 persons; growth in fixed-line services has slowed in the face of mobile-cellular competition
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system
international: country code - 503; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 52, FM 144, shortwave 0 (2005)
Television broadcast stations: 5 (1997)
Internet country code: .sv
Internet hosts: 11,434 (2008)
Internet users: 700,000 (2006)
^Back to Top
Transportation
Airports: 65 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 61
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 48 (2007)
Heliports: 1 (2007)
Railways: total: 562 km
narrow gauge: 562 km 0.914-m gauge
note: railways not in operation since 2005 because of disuse and high costs that led to a lack of maintenance (2007)
Roadways: total: 10,886 km
paved: 2,827 km (includes 327 km of expressways)
unpaved: 8,059 km (2000)
Waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable for small craft (2008)
Ports and terminals: Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco
^Back to Top
Military

Military branches: Salvadoran Army (ES), Salvadoran Navy (FNES), Salvadoran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Salvadorena, FAS) (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 16 years of age for voluntary service; service obligation - 8 months, but 11 months for officers and NCOs (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,634,816
females age 16-49: 1,775,474 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,168,406
females age 16-49: 1,519,375 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: El Salvador   Çarş. Haz. 23, 2010 8:58 pm

El Salvador'un Honduras ile maç için savaştığını biliyor muydunuz???

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MesajKonu: Geri: El Salvador   Bugün 8:31 am

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