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 Swaziland(SVAZİLAND)

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MesajKonu: Swaziland(SVAZİLAND)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:11 pm

Autonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted in 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s pressured King MSWATI III, the world's last absolute monarch, to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy, although he has backslid on these promises in recent years. A constitution came into effect in 2006, but political parties remain banned. The African United Democratic Party tried unsuccessfully to register as an official political party in mid 2006. Talks over the constitution broke down between the government and progressive groups in 2007. Swaziland recently surpassed Botswana as the country with the world's highest known HIV/AIDS prevalence rate.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Swaziland(SVAZİLAND)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:12 pm

Geography
Landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa.
Location: Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa
Geographic coordinates: 26 30 S, 31 30 E
Area: total: 17,363 sq km
land: 17,203 sq km
water: 160 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land Boundaries: total: 535 km
border countries: Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate
Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m
highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m
Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
Land use: arable land: 10.25%
permanent crops: 0.81%
other: 88.94% (2005)
Irrigated land: 500 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: drought
Current Environment Issues: limited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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People
Population: 1,128,814 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.9% (male 226,947/female 222,922)
15-64 years: 56.5% (male 306,560/female 331,406)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 15,594/female 25,385) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 18.7 years
male: 18 years
female: 19.4 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.41% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 26.6 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 30.7 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: NA (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 69.59 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 72.87 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 31.99 years
male: 31.69 years
female: 32.3 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.34 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 38.8% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 220,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 17,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Swazi(s)
adjective: Swazi
Ethnic groups: African 97%, European 3%
Religions: Zionist 40% (a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship), Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 10%, other (includes Anglican, Bahai, Methodist, Mormon, Jewish) 30%
Languages: English (official, government business conducted in English), siSwati (official)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.6%
male: 82.6%
female: 80.8% (2003 est.)
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Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland
conventional short form: Swaziland
local long form: Umbuso weSwatini
local short form: eSwatini
Government type: monarchy
Capital: name: Mbabane
geographic coordinates: 26 18 S, 31 06 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Lobamba (royal and legislative capital)
Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
Independence: 6 September 1968 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 6 September (1968)
Constitution: signed by the King in July 2005 went into effect on 8 February 2006
Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age
Executive branch: chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
head of government: Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso DLAMINI (since 16 October 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by the monarch
elections: the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Libandla consists of the Senate (30 seats; 10 members appointed by the House of Assembly and 20 appointed by the monarch; to serve five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats; 10 members appointed by the monarch and 55 elected by popular vote; to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Assembly - last held 19 September 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: House of Assembly - balloting is done on a nonparty basis; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round
Judicial branch: High Court; Supreme Court; judges for both courts are appointed by the monarch
Political parties and leaders: the status of political parties, previously banned, is unclear under the new (2006) Constitution and currently being debated - the following are considered political associations; African United Democratic Party or AUDP [Stanley MAUNDZISA, president]; Imbokodvo National Movement or INM; Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC [Obed DLAMINI, president]; People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions; Swaziland and Solidarity Network or SSN
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ephraim Mandla HLOPHE
chancery: 1712 New Hampshire Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5002
FAX: [1] (202) 234-8254
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Maurice S. PARKER
embassy: 2350 Mbabane Place, Mbabane
mailing address: P. O. Box 199, Mbabane
telephone: [268] 404-2445
FAX: [268] 404-2059
Executive branch: chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986) head of government: Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso DLAMINI (since 16 October 2008) cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by the monarch elections: the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
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MesajKonu: Geri: Swaziland(SVAZİLAND)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:12 pm

Economy
In this small, landlocked economy, subsistence agriculture occupies approximately 70% of the population. The manufacturing sector has diversified since the mid-1980s. Sugar and wood pulp remain important foreign exchange earners. In 2007, the sugar industry increased efficiency and diversification efforts, in response to a 17% decline in EU sugar prices. Mining has declined in importance in recent years with only coal and quarry stone mines remaining active. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa from which it receives more than nine-tenths of its imports and to which it sends 60% of its exports. Swaziland's currency is pegged to the South African rand, subsuming Swaziland's monetary policy to South Africa. Customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union, which may equal as much as 70% of government revenue this year, and worker remittances from South Africa substantially supplement domestically earned income. Swaziland is not poor enough to merit an IMF program; however, the country is struggling to reduce the size of the civil service and control costs at public enterprises. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for foreign investment. With an estimated 40% unemployment rate, Swaziland's need to increase the number and size of small and medium enterprises and attract foreign direct investment is acute. Overgrazing, soil depletion, drought, and sometimes floods persist as problems for the future. More than one-fourth of the population needed emergency food aid in 2006-07 because of drought, and nearly two-fifths of the adult population has been infected by HIV/AIDS.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $5.708 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $2.968 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,100 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11.9%
industry: 45.1%
services: 43% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 300,000 (2006)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate: 40% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line: 69% (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 40.7% (2001)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 50.4 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.7% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 19.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $1.215 billion
expenditures: $1.155 billion (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: coal, wood pulp, sugar, soft drink concentrates, textiles and apparel
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 460 million kWh (2007)
Electricity - consumption: 1.2 billion kWh (2007)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007)
Electricity - imports: 872 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by South Africa (2007)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 3,490 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 3,530 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: -$10 million (2008 est.)
Exports: $1.83 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus and canned fruit
Imports: $1.978 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $997 million (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $548 million (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $203.1 million (31 December 2007)
Currency (code): lilangeni (SZL)
Exchange rates: emalangeni per US dollar - 7.75 (2008 est.), 7.4 (2007), 6.85 (2006), 6.3593 (2005), 6.4597 (2004)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
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Communications
Telephones in use: 44,000 (2006)
Cellular Phones in use: 380,000 (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: a somewhat modern but not an advanced system
domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular teledensity approaching 40 telephones per 100 persons; telephone system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay
international: country code - 268; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2 (plus 4 repeaters), shortwave 3 (2004)
Television broadcast stations: 12 (includes 7 relay stations) (2004)
Internet country code: .sz
Internet hosts: 2,582 (2008)
Internet users: 42,000 (2006)
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Transportation
Airports: 18 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 10 (2007)
Railways: total: 301 km
narrow gauge: 301 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)
Roadways: total: 3,594 km
paved: 1,078 km
unpaved: 2,516 km (2002)
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Military

Military branches: Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (USDF): Ground Force (includes air wing) (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 266,311 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 122,260 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Swaziland(SVAZİLAND)   Bugün 2:49 am

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