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 Chad(ÇAD)(ÇEKOSLAVAKYA İLE KARIŞTIRMAYINIZ!!!)

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MesajKonu: Chad(ÇAD)(ÇEKOSLAVAKYA İLE KARIŞTIRMAYINIZ!!!)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:14 pm

Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution, and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad, despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007, and the capital experienced a significant rebel threat in early 2008.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Chad(ÇAD)(ÇEKOSLAVAKYA İLE KARIŞTIRMAYINIZ!!!)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:14 pm

Economy
Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. At least 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves - estimated at 1 billion barrels - in southern Chad. Chinese companies are also expanding exploration efforts and plan to build a refinery. The nation's total oil reserves have been estimated to be 1.5 billion barrels. Oil production came on stream in late 2003. Chad began to export oil in 2004. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $16.19 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $9.106 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.7% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,600 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 20.5%
industry: 48%
services: 31.5% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 3.747 million (2006)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 80% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 8.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $2.142 billion
expenditures: $2.125 billion (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 95 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 88.35 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 156,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption: 1,352 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 176,700 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 1,492 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: $527 million (2008 est.)
Exports: $5.501 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil, cattle, cotton, gum arabic
Exports - partners: US 89.5%, Japan 3.7%, China 3.4% (2007)
Imports: $1.47 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners: France 20.4%, Cameroon 16.1%, US 10.9%, China 10%, Germany 7.5%, Saudi Arabia 4.4% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.12 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $1.6 billion (2005 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $4.5 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Currency (code): Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar 438.77 (2008 est.), 480.1 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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Communications
Telephones in use: 13,000 (2006)
Cellular Phones in use: 918,400 (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: primitive system with high costs and low telephone density; fixed-line connections for only about 1 per 1000 persons coupled with mobile-cellular usage of only about 9 per 100 persons
domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2001)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (2001)
Internet country code: .td
Internet hosts: 5 (2008)
Internet users: 60,000 (2006)
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Transportation
Airports: 55 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 7
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 48
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 11 (2007)
Pipelines: oil 250 km (2007)
Roadways: total: 33,400 km
paved: 267 km
unpaved: 33,133 km (2002)
Waterways: Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season (2008)
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Military

Military branches: Armed Forces: Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT), Chadian Air Force (Force Aerienne Tchadienne, FAT), Gendarmerie (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 20 years of age for conscripts, with 3-year service obligation; 18 years of age for volunteers; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,906,545
females age 16-49: 2,258,758 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,066,565
females age 16-49: 1,279,318 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Chad(ÇAD)(ÇEKOSLAVAKYA İLE KARIŞTIRMAYINIZ!!!)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:14 pm

Geography
Landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel.
Location: Central Africa, south of Libya
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E
Area: total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km
Size comparison: slightly more than three times the size of California

Land Boundaries: total: 5,968 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
Natural resources: petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
Land use: arable land: 2.8%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 97.18% (2005)
Irrigated land: 300 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Current Environment Issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
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People
Population: 10,111,337 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 47% (male 2,408,638/female 2,346,984)
15-64 years: 50.1% (male 2,317,406/female 2,746,104)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 123,561/female 168,644) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 16.4 years
male: 15.2 years
female: 17.5 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.195% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 41.61 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 16.39 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -3.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 100.36 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 106.48 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 94 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.43 years
male: 46.4 years
female: 48.5 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.43 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.8% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 200,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 18,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
Ethnic groups: Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)
Religions: Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)
Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 25.7%
male: 40.8%
female: 12.8% (2000 est.)
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Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
local short form: Tchad/Tshad
Government type: republic
Capital: name: N'Djamena
geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 18 regions (regions, singular - region); Batha, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Constitution: passed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits
Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Youssof Saleh ABBAS (since 16 April 2008)
cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 3 May 2006 (next to be held by May 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 64.7%, Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE 15.1%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 7.8%, Mahamat ABDOULAYE 7.1%, Brahim KOULAMALLAH 5.3%; note - a June 2005 national referendum altered the constitution removing presidential term limits and permitting Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno to run for reelection
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the 1996 constitution called for a Senate that has never been formed
elections: National Assembly - last held 21 April 2002 (next to be held by 2009); note - legislative elections, originally scheduled for 2006, were first delayed by National Assembly action and subsequently by an accord, signed in August 2007, between government and opposition parties
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, UNDR 5, URD 3, other 11
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
Political parties and leaders: Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or RNDP [Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE]; National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: rebel groups
International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Adam BECHIR
chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Louis NIGRO
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] 251-62-11, [235] 251-70-09, [235] 251-77-59
FAX: [235] 251-56-54
Executive branch: chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990) head of government: Prime Minister Youssof Saleh ABBAS (since 16 April 2008) cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 3 May 2006 (next to be held by May 2011); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 64.7%, Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE 15.1%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 7.8%, Mahamat ABDOULAYE 7.1%, Brahim KOULAMALLAH 5.3%; note - a June 2005 national referendum altered the constitution removing presidential term limits and permitting Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno to run for reelection
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MesajKonu: Geri: Chad(ÇAD)(ÇEKOSLAVAKYA İLE KARIŞTIRMAYINIZ!!!)   Bugün 2:48 am

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