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     South Africa(GÜNEY AFRİKA)

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    MesajKonu: South Africa(GÜNEY AFRİKA)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:15 pm

    Dutch traders landed at the southern tip of modern day South Africa in 1652 and established a stopover point on the spice route between the Netherlands and the East, founding the city of Cape Town. After the British seized the Cape of Good Hope area in 1806, many of the Dutch settlers (the Boers) trekked north to found their own republics. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants. The Boers resisted British encroachments but were defeated in the Boer War (1899-1902); however, the British and the Afrikaners, as the Boers became known, ruled together under the Union of South Africa. In 1948, the National Party was voted into power and instituted a policy of apartheid - the separate development of the races. The first multi-racial elections in 1994 brought an end to apartheid and ushered in black majority rule under the African National Congress (ANC). ANC infighting, which has grown in recent years, came to a head in September 2008 after President Thabo MBEKI resigned. Kgalema MOTLANTHE, the party's General-Secretary, succeeded as interim president until general elections scheduled for 2009.
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    MesajKonu: Geri: South Africa(GÜNEY AFRİKA)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:16 pm

    Geography
    South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland.
    Location: Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
    Geographic coordinates: 29 00 S, 24 00 E
    Area: total: 1,219,912 sq km
    land: 1,219,912 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward Island)
    Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

    Land Boundaries: total: 4,862 km
    border countries: Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491 km, Namibia 967 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km
    Coastline: 2,798 km
    Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
    Climate: mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights
    Terrain: vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Njesuthi 3,408 m
    Natural resources: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas
    Land use: arable land: 12.1%
    permanent crops: 0.79%
    other: 87.11% (2005)
    Irrigated land: 14,980 sq km (2003)
    Natural hazards: prolonged droughts
    Current Environment Issues: lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in water usage outpacing supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification
    International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    ^Back to Top
    People
    Population: 48,782,756 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
    Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.2% (male 7,147,151/female 7,120,183)
    15-64 years: 65.5% (male 16,057,340/female 15,889,750)
    65 years and over: 5.3% (male 1,050,287/female 1,518,044) (2008 est.)
    Median age: total: 24.2 years
    male: 23.8 years
    female: 24.6 years (2008 est.)
    Population growth rate: 0.828% (2008 est.)
    Birth rate: 20.23 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Death rate: 16.94 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Net migration rate: 4.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2008 est.)
    Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
    Infant mortality rate: total: 45.11 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 49.47 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 40.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
    Life expectancy at birth: total population: 48.89 years
    male: 49.63 years
    female: 48.15 years (2008 est.)
    Total fertility rate: 2.43 children born/woman (2008 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 21.5% (2003 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 5.3 million (2003 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths: 370,000 (2003 est.)
    Nationality: noun: South African(s)
    adjective: South African
    Ethnic groups: black African 79%, white 9.6%, colored 8.9%, Indian/Asian 2.5% (2001 census)
    Religions: Zion Christian 11.1%, Pentecostal/Charismatic 8.2%, Catholic 7.1%, Methodist 6.8%, Dutch Reformed 6.7%, Anglican 3.8%, Muslim 1.5%, other Christian 36%, other 2.3%, unspecified 1.4%, none 15.1% (2001 census)
    Languages: IsiZulu 23.8%, IsiXhosa 17.6%, Afrikaans 13.3%, Sepedi 9.4%, English 8.2%, Setswana 8.2%, Sesotho 7.9%, Xitsonga 4.4%, other 7.2% (2001 census)
    Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 86.4%
    male: 87%
    female: 85.7% (2003 est.)
    ^Back to Top
    Government
    Country name: conventional long form: Republic of South Africa
    conventional short form: South Africa
    former: Union of South Africa
    abbreviation: RSA
    Government type: republic
    Capital: name: Pretoria (administrative capital)
    geographic coordinates: 25 42 S, 28 13 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    note: Cape Town (legislative capital); Bloemfontein (judicial capital)
    Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North-West, Western Cape
    Independence: 31 May 1910 (Union of South Africa formed from four British colonies: Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State); 31 May 1961 (republic declared) 27 April 1994 (majority rule)
    National holiday: Freedom Day, 27 April (1994)
    Constitution: 10 December 1996; this new constitution was certified by the Constitutional Court on 4 December 1996, was signed by then President MANDELA on 10 December 1996, and entered into effect on 4 February 1997
    Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
    Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch: chief of state: President Kgalema MOTLANTHE (since 25 September 2008); Executive Deputy President Baleka MBETE (since 25 September 2008); note - Thabo MBEKI resigned as president effective 25 September 2008; the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Kgalema MOTLANTHE (since 25 September 2008); Executive Deputy President Baleka MBETE (since 25 September 2008)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 September 2008 (next to be held in April 2009); note - Kgalema MOTLANTHE is serving out the term of Thabo MBEKI
    election results: Kgalema MOTLANTHE elected president; National Assembly vote - Kgalema MOTLANTHE 269, Joe SEREMANE 50, other 41; note - Thabo MBEKI resigned as president effective 25 September 2008, Kgalema MOTLANTHE is serving the remainder of his term
    Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consisting of the National Assembly (400 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional representation to serve five-year terms) and the National Council of Provinces (90 seats, 10 members elected by each of the nine provincial legislatures for five-year terms; has special powers to protect regional interests, including the safeguarding of cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic minorities); note - following the implementation of the new constitution on 4 February 1997, the former Senate was disbanded and replaced by the National Council of Provinces with essentially no change in membership and party affiliations, although the new institution's responsibilities have been changed somewhat by the new constitution
    elections: National Assembly and National Council of Provinces - last held on 14 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2009)
    election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - ANC 69.7%, DA 12.4%, IFP 7%, UDM 2.3%, NNP 1.7%, ACDP 1.6%, other 5.3%; seats by party - ANC 279, DA 50, IFP 28, UDM 9, NNP 7, ACDP 6, other 21; National Council of Provinces - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
    Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court of Appeals; High Courts; Magistrate Courts
    Political parties and leaders: African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE]; African National Congress or ANC [Jacob ZUMA]; Congress of the People or COPE [Mosiuo LEKOTA]; Democratic Alliance or DA [Helen ZILLE]; Freedom Front Plus or FF+ [Pieter MULDER]; Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI]; New National Party or NNP; Pan-Africanist Congress or PAC [Motsoko PHEKO]; United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]
    Political pressure groups and leaders: Congress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary]; South African Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]; South African National Civics Organization or SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE, national president]
    note: note - COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance with the ANC
    International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, BIS, C, FAO, G-20, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, NSG, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Welile Augustine NHLAPO
    chancery: 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 232-4400
    FAX: [1] (202) 265-1607
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Eric BOST
    embassy: 877 Pretorius Street, Pretoria
    mailing address: P. O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001
    telephone: [27] (12) 431-4000
    FAX: [27] (12) 342-2299
    consulate(s) general: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg
    Executive branch: chief of state: President Kgalema MOTLANTHE (since 25 September 2008); Executive Deputy President Baleka MBETE (since 25 September 2008); note - Thabo MBEKI resigned as president effective 25 September 2008; the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Kgalema MOTLANTHE (since 25 September 2008); Executive Deputy President Baleka MBETE (since 25 September 2008) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 September 2008 (next to be held in April 2009); note - Kgalema MOTLANTHE is serving out the term of Thabo MBEKI election results: Kgalema MOTLANTHE elected president; National Assembly vote - Kgalema MOTLANTHE 269, Joe SEREMANE 50, other 41; note - Thabo MBEKI resigned as president effective 25 September 2008, Kgalema MOTLANTHE is serving the remainder of his term
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    MesajKonu: Geri: South Africa(GÜNEY AFRİKA)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:16 pm

    Economy
    South Africa is a middle-income, emerging market with an abundant supply of natural resources; well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors; a stock exchange that is 17th largest in the world; and modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the region. Growth was robust from 2004 to 2008 as South Africa reaped the benefits of macroeconomic stability and a global commodities boom, but began to slow in the second half of 2008 due to the global financial crisis' impact on commodity prices and demand. However, unemployment remains high and outdated infrastructure has constrained growth. At the end of 2007, South Africa began to experience an electricity crisis because state power supplier Eskom suffered supply problems with aged plants, necessitating "load-shedding" cuts to residents and businesses in the major cities. Daunting economic problems remain from the apartheid era - especially poverty, lack of economic empowerment among the disadvantaged groups, and a shortage of public transportation. South African economic policy is fiscally conservative but pragmatic, focusing on controlling inflation, maintaining a budget surplus, and using state-owned enterprises to deliver basic services to low-income areas as a means to increase job growth and household income.
    GDP (purchasing power parity): $506.1 billion (2008 est.)
    GDP (official exchange rate): $300.4 billion (2008 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate: 3.7% (2008 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP): $10,400 (2008 est.)
    GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.4%
    industry: 31.3%
    services: 65.3% (2008 est.)
    Labor force: 18.22 million economically active (2008 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 9%
    industry: 26%
    services: 65% (2007 est.)
    Unemployment rate: 21.7% (2008 est.)
    Population below poverty line: 50% (2000 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.4%
    highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index: 65 (2005)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.3% (2008 est.)
    Investment (gross fixed): 20.1% of GDP (2008 est.)
    Budget: revenues: $83.85 billion
    expenditures: $83.3 billion (2008 est.)
    Public debt: 29.9% of GDP (2008 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    Industries: mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textiles, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs, commercial ship repair
    Industrial production growth rate:
    Electricity - production: 264 billion kWh (2007)
    Electricity - consumption: 241.4 billion kWh (2007)
    Electricity - exports: 13.77 billion kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - imports: 11.32 billion kWh (2007)
    Oil - production: 199,100 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - consumption: 504,900 bbl/day (2006 est.)
    Oil - exports: 267,700 bbl/day (2005)
    Oil - imports: 319,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
    Oil - proved reserves: 15 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
    Natural gas - production: 2.9 billion cu m (2006 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption: 3.1 billion cu m (2006 est.)
    Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2005)
    Natural gas - proved reserves: 27.16 million cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
    Current account balance: -$21.67 billion (2008 est.)
    Exports: $81.47 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
    Exports - commodities: gold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment
    Exports - partners: US 11.9%, Japan 11.1%, Germany 8%, UK 7.7%, China 6.6%, Netherlands 4.5% (2007)
    Imports: $87.3 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
    Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments, foodstuffs
    Imports - partners: Germany 10.9%, China 10%, Spain 8.2%, US 7.2%, Japan 6.1%, UK 4.5%, Saudi Arabia 4.2% (2007)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $33.59 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    Debt - external: $39.69 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $99.61 billion (2008 est.)
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $57.08 billion (2008 est.)
    Market value of publicly traded shares: $842 billion (January 2008)
    Currency (code): rand (ZAR)
    Exchange rates: rand (ZAR) per US dollar - 7.9576 (2008 est.), 7.05 (2007), 6.7649 (2006), 6.3593 (2005), 6.4597 (2004)
    Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
    ^Back to Top
    Communications
    Telephones in use: 4.642 million (2007)
    Cellular Phones in use: 42.3 million (2007)
    Telephone system: general assessment: the system is the best developed and most modern in Africa
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is nearly 110 telephones per 100 persons; consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria
    international: country code - 27; the SAT-3/WASC and SAFE fiber optic cable systems connect South Africa to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean)
    Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 347 (plus 243 repeaters), shortwave 1 (1998)
    Television broadcast stations: 556 (plus 144 network repeaters) (1997)
    Internet country code: .za
    Internet hosts: 1.297 million (2008)
    Internet users: 5.1 million (2005)
    ^Back to Top
    Transportation
    Airports: 728 (2007)
    Airports (paved runways): total: 146
    over 3,047 m: 10
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
    914 to 1,523 m: 67
    under 914 m: 13 (2007)
    Airports (unpaved runways): total: 582
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 34
    914 to 1,523 m: 300
    under 914 m: 248 (2007)
    Heliports: 1 (2007)
    Pipelines: condensate 100 km; gas 1,177 km; oil 992 km; refined products 1,379 km (2007)
    Railways: total: 20,872 km
    narrow gauge: 20,436 km 1.065-m gauge (8,931 km electrified); 436 km 0.610-m gauge (2006)
    Roadways: total: 362,099 km
    paved: 73,506 km (includes 239 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 288,593 km (2002)
    Merchant marine: total: 3
    by type: container 1, petroleum tanker 2
    foreign-owned: 1 (Denmark 1)
    registered in other countries: 8 (Bahamas 1, Nigeria 1, NZ 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Seychelles 1, UK 3) (2008)
    Ports and terminals: Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha Bay
    ^Back to Top
    Military
    With the end of apartheid and the establishment of majority rule, former military, black homelands forces, and ex-opposition forces were integrated into the South African National Defense Force (SANDF); as of 2003 the integration process was considered complete
    Military branches: South African National Defense Force (SANDF): South African Army, South African Navy (SAN), South African Air Force (SAAF), Joint Operations Command, Military Intelligence, Military Health Services (2008)
    Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; women have a long history of military service in noncombat roles dating back to World War I (2004)
    Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 11,622,507
    females age 16-49: 11,501,537 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 6,042,498
    females age 16-49: 5,471,103 (2008 est.)
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    MesajKonu: Geri: South Africa(GÜNEY AFRİKA)   Bugün 5:55 pm

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