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 Tajikistan(TACİKİSTAN)

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MesajKonu: Tajikistan(TACİKİSTAN)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:18 pm

The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbekistan SSR to newly formed Tajikistan SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Sughd province. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and it is now in the process of strengthening its democracy and transitioning to a free market economy after its 1992-97 civil war. There have been no major security incidents in recent years, although the country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development and security assistance, which could create jobs and increase stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO's Partnership for Peace.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Tajikistan(TACİKİSTAN)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:18 pm

Geography
Landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR.
Location: Central Asia, west of China
Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 71 00 E
Area: total: 143,100 sq km
land: 142,700 sq km
water: 400 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land Boundaries: total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Terrain: Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
Natural resources: hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use: arable land: 6.52%
permanent crops: 0.89%
other: 92.59% (2005)
Irrigated land: 7,220 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: earthquakes and floods
Current Environment Issues: inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
^Back to Top
People
Population: 7,211,884 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 34.6% (male 1,270,289/female 1,226,954)
15-64 years: 61.7% (male 2,203,720/female 2,244,660)
65 years and over: 3.7% (male 113,156/female 153,105) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 21.6 years
male: 21.2 years
female: 22.1 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.893% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 27.18 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 6.94 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 42.31 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 47.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 37.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.97 years
male: 61.95 years
female: 68.15 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.04 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality: noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groups: Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)
Religions: Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
Languages: Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.5%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.2% (2000 census)
^Back to Top
Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 35 N, 68 48 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* [Gorno-Badakhshan] (Khorugh), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Independence: 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Constitution: 6 November 1994
Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON 79.3%, Olimjon BOBOEV 6.2%, other 14.5%
Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; to serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 25 March 2005 (next to be held in February 2010); Assembly of Representatives 27 February and 13 March 2005 (next to be held in February 2010)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDPT 29, CPT 2, independents 3; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 74.9%, CPT 13.6%, Islamic Revival Party 8.9%, other 2.5%; seats by party - PDPT 51, CPT 5, Islamic Revival Party 2, independents 5
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir QARAQULOV]; Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV (imprisoned October 2005); Rahmatullo VALIYEV, deputy]; Islamic Revival Party [Muhiddin KABIRI]; Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimjon BOBOEV]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Mirhuseyn NARZIEV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders: splinter parties recognized by the government but not by the base of the party: Democratic Party or DPT [Masud SOBIROV] (splintered from ISKANDAROV's DPT); Socialist Party or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV] (splintered from NARZIEV's SPT)
unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party [Hikmatullo NASREDDINOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]
International organization participation: ADB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Abdujabbor SHIRINOV
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Tracey Ann JACOBSON
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
Executive branch: chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992) head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON 79.3%, Olimjon BOBOEV 6.2%, other 14.5%
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MesajKonu: Geri: Tajikistan(TACİKİSTAN)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:18 pm

Economy
Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Only 7% of the land area is arable. Cotton is the most important crop, but this sector is burdened with debt and an obsolete infrastructure. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, corruption, weak governance, widespread unemployment, seasonal power shortages, and the external debt burden. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002 including a $250 million write-off of Tajikistan's $300 million debt. Completion of the Sangtuda I hydropower dam - built with Russian investment - and the Sangtuda II and Rogun dams will add substantially to electricity output. If finished according to Tajik plans, Rogun will be the world's tallest dam. Tajikistan has also received substantial infrastructure development loans from the Chinese government to improve roads and an electricity transmission network. To help increase north-south trade, the US funded a $36 million bridge which opened in August 2007 and links Tajikistan and Afghanistan. While, Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997, nearly two-thirds of the population continues to live in poverty. Economic growth reached 10.6% in 2004, but dropped to roughly 8% in 2005-07, and 4.5% in 2008, as the effects of the international financial crisis began to register - mainly in the form of lower prices for key commodities.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $13.04 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $4.788 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.5% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,800 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 23%
industry: 29.4%
services: 47.6% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 2.1 million (2007)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 67.2%
industry: 7.5%
services: 25.3% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: 2.4% official rate; actual unemployment is higher (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line: 60% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 25.6% (2007 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 32.6 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 21% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 13.6% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $872.3 million
expenditures: $886.8 million (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: aluminum, zinc, lead; chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 17.4 billion kWh (2007)
Electricity - consumption: 17.9 billion kWh (2007)
Electricity - exports: 4.259 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports: 4.36 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 281.1 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 31,590 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 247.7 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 7,600 bbl/day (2007)
Oil - proved reserves: 12 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 32 million cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 842 million cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 810 million cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance: -$584 million (2008 est.)
Exports: $1.675 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners: Netherlands 38.9%, Turkey 32.5%, Russia 6.6%, Uzbekistan 5.9%, Iran 5.1% (2007)
Imports: $3.798 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Russia 32.1%, Kazakhstan 13.1%, China 10.8%, Uzbekistan 8.4% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $394 million (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $1.681 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $88.93 billion (2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $8.463 billion (2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Currency (code): somoni (TJS)
Exchange rates: Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar - 3.4563 (2008 est.), 3.4418 (2007), 3.3 (2006), 3.1166 (2005), 2.9705 (2004)
Fiscal year: calendar year
^Back to Top
Communications
Telephones in use: 280,200 (2005)
Cellular Phones in use: 265,000 (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not linked to the national network
domestic: the domestic telecommunications network has historically been under funded and poorly maintained; main line availability has not changed significantly since 1998; cellular telephone use is growing but geographic coverage remains limited
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita) (2006)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 10, shortwave 2 (2002)
Television broadcast stations: 6 (2006)
Internet country code: .tj
Internet hosts: 1,158 (2008)
Internet users: 19,500 (2005)
^Back to Top
Transportation
Airports: 26 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 18
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 8
under 914 m: 8 (2007)
Pipelines: gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2007)
Railways: total: 482 km
broad gauge: 482 km 1.520-m gauge (2006)
Roadways: total: 27,767 km (2000)
Waterways: 200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2008)
^Back to Top
Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Force (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2007)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,897,356
females age 16-49: 1,911,594 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,391,287
females age 16-49: 1,561,826 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Tajikistan(TACİKİSTAN)   Bugün 2:50 am

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