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 Tokelau(TOKELAU)

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MesajKonu: Tokelau(TOKELAU)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:19 pm

Originally settled by Polynesian emigrants from surrounding island groups, the Tokelau Islands were made a British protectorate in 1889. They were transferred to New Zealand administration in 1925. Referenda held in 2006 and 2007 to change the status of the islands from that of a New Zealand territory to one of free association with New Zealand did not meet the needed threshold for approval.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Tokelau(TOKELAU)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:19 pm

Geography
Consists of three atolls (Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu), each with a lagoon surrounded by a number of reef-bound islets of varying length and rising to over 3 m above sea level.
Location: Oceania, group of three atolls in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Geographic coordinates: 9 00 S, 172 00 W
Area: total: 10 sq km
land: 10 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Size comparison: about 17 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 101 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)
Terrain: low-lying coral atolls enclosing large lagoons
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 5 m
Natural resources: NEGL
Land use: arable land: 0% (soil is thin and infertile)
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: lies in Pacific typhoon belt
Current Environment Issues: limited natural resources and overcrowding are contributing to emigration to New Zealand
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People
Population: 1,433 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 42%
15-64 years: 53%
65 years and over: 5%
Median age:
Population growth rate: -0.011% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: NA (2008 est.)
Death rate: NA (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: NA (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: NA
Infant mortality rate: total: NA
male: NA
female: NA (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: NA (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Tokelauan(s)
adjective: Tokelauan
Ethnic groups: Polynesian
Religions: Congregational Christian Church 70%, Roman Catholic 28%, other 2%
note: on Atafu, all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on Nukunonu, all Roman Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the Congregational Christian Church predominant
Languages: Tokelauan (a Polynesian language), English
Literacy: NA
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Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Tokelau
Government type: NA
Capital: none; each atoll has its own administrative center
time difference: UTC-11 (6 hours behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: none (territory of New Zealand)
Independence: none (territory of New Zealand)
National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)
Constitution: administered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948; amended in 1970
Legal system: New Zealand and local statutes
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General of New Zealand Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006); New Zealand is represented by Administrator David PAYTON (since 17 October 2006)
head of government: Pio TUIA (since 23 February 2008); note - position rotates annually among the three Faipule (village leaders)
cabinet: the Council for the Ongoing Government of Tokelau, consisting of three Faipule (village leaders) and three Pulenuku (village mayors), functions as a cabinet
elections: the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade in New Zealand; the head of government is chosen from the Council of Faipule and serves a one-year term
Legislative branch: unicameral General Fono (20 seats; based upon proportional representation from the three islands elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; Atafu has seven seats, Fakaofo has seven seats, Nukunonu has six seats); note - the Tokelau Amendment Act of 1996 confers limited legislative power on the General Fono
elections: last held 17-19 January 2008 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: independents 20
Judicial branch: Supreme Court in New Zealand exercises civil and criminal jurisdiction in Tokelau
Political parties and leaders: none
Political pressure groups and leaders: none
International organization participation: PIF (observer), SPC, UNESCO (associate), UPU
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of New Zealand)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of New Zealand)
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General of New Zealand Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006); New Zealand is represented by Administrator David PAYTON (since 17 October 2006) head of government: Pio TUIA (since 23 February 2008); note - position rotates annually among the three Faipule (village leaders) cabinet: the Council for the Ongoing Government of Tokelau, consisting of three Faipule (village leaders) and three Pulenuku (village mayors), functions as a cabinet elections: the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade in New Zealand; the head of government is chosen from the Council of Faipule and serves a one-year term
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MesajKonu: Geri: Tokelau(TOKELAU)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:19 pm

Economy
Tokelau's small size (three villages), isolation, and lack of resources greatly restrain economic development and confine agriculture to the subsistence level. The people rely heavily on aid from New Zealand - about $4 million annually - to maintain public services with annual aid being substantially greater than GDP. The principal sources of revenue come from sales of copra, postage stamps, souvenir coins, and handicrafts. Money is also remitted to families from relatives in New Zealand.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.5 million (1993 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $NA
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,000 (1993 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Labor force: 440 (2001)
Labor force - by occupation:
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%
Budget: revenues: $430,800
expenditures: $2.8 million (1987 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: small-scale enterprises for copra production, woodworking, plaited craft goods; stamps, coins; fishing
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: NA kWh
Electricity - consumption: NA kWh
Exports: $0 (2002)
Exports - commodities: stamps, copra, handicrafts
Imports: $969,200 c.i.f. (2002)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, building materials, fuel
Debt - external:
Currency (code): New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZD) per US dollar - 1.4151 (2008 est.), 1.3811 (2007), 1.5408 (2006), 1.4203 (2005), 1.5087 (2004)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
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Communications
Telephones in use: 300 (2002)
Cellular Phones in use:
Telephone system: general assessment: modern satellite-based communications system
domestic: radiotelephone service between islands
international: country code - 690; radiotelephone service to Samoa; government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok); satellite earth stations - 3
Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA (one radio station provides service to all islands) (2002)
Television broadcast stations:
Internet country code: .tk
Internet hosts: 273 (2008)
Internet users: NA
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Transportation
Roadways:
Ports and terminals: none; offshore anchorage only
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Military
Defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
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MesajKonu: Geri: Tokelau(TOKELAU)   Bugün 7:49 pm

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