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 Uganda(UGANDA)

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MesajKonu: Uganda(UGANDA)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:32 pm

The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences prevented the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. During the 1990s, the government promulgated non-party presidential and legislative elections.
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MesajKonu: Geri: Uganda(UGANDA)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:32 pm

Geography
Landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers.
Location: Eastern Africa, west of Kenya
Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 32 00 E
Area: total: 236,040 sq km
land: 199,710 sq km
water: 36,330 sq km
Size comparison: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land Boundaries: total: 2,698 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
Natural resources: copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land
Land use: arable land: 21.57%
permanent crops: 8.92%
other: 69.51% (2005)
Irrigated land: 90 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
^Back to Top
People
Population: 31,367,972 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 50% (male 7,903,935/female 7,789,792)
15-64 years: 47.8% (male 7,528,073/female 7,469,938)
65 years and over: 2.2% (male 284,122/female 392,112) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 15 years
male: 14.9 years
female: 15.1 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.603% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 48.15 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 12.32 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 65.99 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 69.65 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 62.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 52.34 years
male: 51.31 years
female: 53.4 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.81 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 530,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 78,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
Ethnic groups: Baganda 16.9%, Banyakole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, other 29.6% (2002 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 41.9%, Protestant 42% (Anglican 35.9%, Pentecostal 4.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.5%), Muslim 12.1%, other 3.1%, none 0.9% (2002 census)
Languages: English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 66.8%
male: 76.8%
female: 57.7% (2002 census)
^Back to Top
Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Kampala
geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 25 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 56 districts; Adjumani, Apac, Arua, Bugiri, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Gulu, Hoima, Iganga, Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kampala, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibale, Kiboga, Kisoro, Kitgum, Kotido, Kumi, Kyenjojo, Lira, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakasongola, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe
note: as of a July 2005, 13 new districts were reportedly added bringing the total up to 69; the new districts are Amolatar, Amuria, Budaka, Butaleja, Ibanda, Kaabong, Kabingo, Kaliro, Kiruhura, Koboko, Manafwa, Mityana, Nakaseke; a total of ten more districts are in the process of being added
Independence: 9 October 1962 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Constitution: 8 October 1995; in 2005 the constitution was amended removing presidential term limits and legalizing a multiparty political system
Legal system: in 1995, the government restored the legal system to one based on English common law and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 26 January 1986); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 26 January 1986); Prime Minister Apolo NSIBAMBI (since 5 April 1999); note - the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators
elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 23 February 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 59.3%, Kizza BESIGYE 37.4%, other 3.3%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (332 seats; 215 members elected by popular vote, 104 nominated by legally established special interest groups [women 79, army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5], 13 ex officio members; to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 23 February 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 191, FDC 37, UPC 9, DP 8, CP 1, JEEMA 1, independents 36, other 49
Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature); High Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders: Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]; Democratic Party or DP [Kizito SSEBAANA]; Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Kizza BESIGYE]; Justice Forum or JEEMA [Muhammad Kibirige MAYANJA]; National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]; Peoples Progressive Party or PPP [Bidandi SSALI]; Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Miria OBOTE]
note: a national referendum in July 2005 opened the way for Uganda's transition to a multi-party political system
Political pressure groups and leaders: Lord's Resistence Group or LRA [Joseph KONY]; Young Parliamentary Association [Henry BANYENZAKI]; Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO; National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON]; The Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Wormen or COPAW
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Perezi Karukubiro KAMUNANWIRE
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Steven BROWNING
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (414) 259, 306-001
FAX: [256] (414) 258-451
Executive branch: chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 26 January 1986); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 26 January 1986); Prime Minister Apolo NSIBAMBI (since 5 April 1999); note - the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 23 February 2006 (next to be held in 2011) election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 59.3%, Kizza BESIGYE 37.4%, other 3.3%
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MesajKonu: Geri: Uganda(UGANDA)   C.tesi Nis. 04, 2009 12:32 pm

Economy
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper, cobalt, gold, and other minerals. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. During 1990-2001, the economy turned in a solid performance based on continued investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, reduced inflation, gradually improved domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Growth continues to be solid, despite variability in the price of coffee, Uganda's principal export, and a consistent upturn in Uganda's export markets. In 2000, Uganda qualified for enhanced Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief worth $1.3 billion and Paris Club debt relief worth $145 million. These amounts combined with the original HIPC debt relief added up to about $2 billion.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $34.23 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $15.04 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.4% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,100 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 29%
industry: 24.8%
services: 46.2% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 14.48 million (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 82%
industry: 5%
services: 13% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 35% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 37.7% (2002)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 45.7 (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.5% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 26.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $2.72 billion
expenditures: $3.05 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2008 est.)
Public debt: 19.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production: 1.161 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 899.7 million kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 180 million kWh (2006)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption: 11,570 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports: 115.2 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports: 11,540 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: -$933 million (2008 est.)
Exports: $2.03 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
Exports - partners: Netherlands 10.2%, Belgium 9.8%, Germany 7.9%, France 7.2%, Rwanda 5.6% (2007)
Imports: $3.579 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
Imports - partners: Kenya 31.8%, China 7.8%, UAE 7.7%, South Africa 5.9%, India 5.2%, Japan 4.8% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.8 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external: $1.705 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $103.4 million (2005)
Currency (code): Ugandan shilling (UGX)
Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar - 1,658.1 (2008 est.), 1,685.8 (2007), 1,834.9 (2006), 1,780.7 (2005), 1,810.3 (2004)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
^Back to Top
Communications
Telephones in use: 162,300 (2007)
Cellular Phones in use: 4.195 million (2007)
Telephone system: general assessment: seriously inadequate; mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; e-mail and Internet services are available
domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile-cellular systems for short-range traffic
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania
Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 33, shortwave 2 (2001)
Television broadcast stations: 8 (plus 1 repeater) (2001)
Internet country code: .ug
Internet hosts: 1,090 (2008)
Internet users: 2 million (2007)
^Back to Top
Transportation
Airports: 32 (2007)
Airports (paved runways): total: 5
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 9 (2007)
Railways: total: 1,244 km
narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways: total: 70,746 km
paved: 16,272 km
unpaved: 54,474 km (2003)
Waterways: on Lake Victoria, 200 km on Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, and parts of Albert Nile (2008)
Ports and terminals: Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell
^Back to Top
Military

Military branches: Uganda Peoples Defense Force (UPDF): Army (includes Marine Unit), Air Force (2007)
Military service age and obligation: 18-26 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military duty; 18-30 years of age for professionals; 9-year service obligation; the government has stated that recruitment below 18 years of age could occur with proper consent and that "no person under the apparent age of 13 years shall be enrolled in the armed forces"; Ugandan citizenship and secondary education required (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 6,532,894
females age 16-49: 6,352,416 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 3,856,365
females age 16-49: 3,769,120 (2008 est.)
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MesajKonu: Geri: Uganda(UGANDA)   Bugün 4:19 pm

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